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Deviance- Chapter 9.docx

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University of Guelph
SOC 1100
Linda Gerber

Sociology: Chapter 9 (Deviance) Deviance: recognized violation of cultural norms Primary deviance ~ passing episodes that may provoke slight reaction Secondary deviance ~ person repeatedly violates a norm, takes on deviant identity Crime: violation of a society’s formally enacted criminal law Social control: attempts by society to regulate people’s thoughts and behaviour Criminal justice system: a formal response by police, courts, and prison officials to alleged violations of the law Labelling Theory: the idea that deviance and conformity result not so much from what people do as from how others respond to those actions Stigma: a powerfully negative label that greatly changes a person’s self-concept and social identity Medicalization of deviance: the transformation of moral and legal deviance into a medical condition White-collar crime: crime committed by persons of high social position in the course of their occupation Corporate crime: the illegal actions of a corporation or people acting on its behalf Organized crime: a business that supplies illegal goods or services Hate crime: a criminal act against a person or person’s property by an offender motivated by racial or other bias. Violent Crimes: crimes against people that involve violence or threat of violence Property crimes: crimes that involve theft of property belonging to others Victimless crimes: violations of laws in which there are no readily apparent victims Plea bargain: a legal negotiation in which the prosecution reduces a defendant’s charge in exchange for a guilty plea Retribution: an act of moral vengeance by which society makes the offender suffer as much as the suffering caused by the crime Deterrence: the attempt to discourage criminality through punishment Rehabilitation: a program for reforming the offender to preclude subsequent offences Societal Protection: rendering an offender incapable of further offences either temporarily through incarceration or permanently by execution Criminal Recidivism: subsequent offences by people previously convicted of crimes Community-based corrections: correctional programs operating within society at large, rather than behind prison walls What is Deviance?  Social Control  Biological Context – genetics and environmental factors  Personality Factors – deviance viewed as result of ‘unsuccessful’ socialization  Social Foundations of Deviance o Deviance varies according to cultural norms o People become deviant as others define them that way o Both norms and the way in which people define rule breaking involve social power Functions of Deviance – Structural-Functional Analysis  Key insight – deviance is a necessary part of social organization; Emile Durkheim 1.Deviance affirms cultural values and norms 2.Responding to deviance clarifies moral boundaries 3.Responding to serious deviance brings people together 4.Deviance encourages social change Merton’s Strain Theory  Deviance depends on the extent to which society provides the means (education, employment) to achieve cultural goals (financial success) Conformity – pursuing cultural goals through approved means Deviance innovation – using unconventional means (street crime) to achieve culturally approved goal Ritualism – inability to reach cultural goal Retreatism – rejection of both cultural goals and means – alcoholics, drug addicts, street people Rebellion – reject both cultural definition of success and conventional means of achieving it, forming counterculture supporting alternatives Deviant subcultures  Criminal subcultures (Hells Angels, gangs)  Conflict subcultures (armed street gangs)  Ret
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