SOC1100 Lecture 2: LEC#2(01:20:16)

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SOC*1100 LEC#2 01/20/16
SHORT MOVIE - Anybody’s Son Will Do:
-Follows teenage civilians through their journey to becoming marines.
-if you want to change people quickly and radically, you isolate them and apply enormous
amounts of physical and mental pressure; pushing them towards the only accepted/desired
behaviour in that isolated community.
-The first step to creating a soldier out of a civilian is to strip the recruit of all of their civilian
identity (hair, clothes, etc.)
-Use the idea of what a “man” is. A man, by the army standards, must be strong, have
endurance and be essentially unbreakable both emotionally and physically.
-If the recruits show weakness or lack of physical physique/ability, they are ridiculed, humiliated
and ostracized for being “less than” compared to the other men.
-The idea of the army is to break the spirit of the civilian and essentially rebuild a new person
from the ground up, training them to be “real men.”
-Typically, young men a chosen for the army because they can be trained with the desire to go
to war. They still possess the idea or heroism and their desires to be considered heroic and
important to society through defending or “saving” their country. It is more difficult to convince
older men that they want to be in the army, go to war, or be a “hero”.
-Most of us put limits on our physical aggression, when teaching men to become soldiers, they
are taught to ignore these limits. This is done so when the time comes that they encounter an
enemy, they will not hesitate and have the power to kill.
-Indoctrinates recruits with the idea that the enemy is not fully human, and thus they are alright
to kill.
-The desire to fit into a group or community is still heavily desired among the recruits and thus
they try with great efforts to succeed and fit in through following conforming to the army
mentality and morals.
-Basic training is much the same because it works on the fundamental characteristics that
teenage boys already possess: a certain level of aggression, the desire to fit into a group,, and
the idea of being a hero, the sense of “invincibility.”
-Humans are a very large product of their environment (family, city, province, country, etc.)
-How do we know that we are really our authentic selves? Do we have
attitudes/personalities/destinies? Or are we a composite of who people want us to be?
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-You are the only person who gets to say who you are. You are the only one who know how
you think, how you feel, what you desire, what you believe your purpose to be, what you like or
dislike, etc.
-We are here on this earth to work together and provide things that are essential for one
another. (i.e. doctors don’t work to help themselves, they work to help others, and lawyers don’t
give themselves legal advice, they assist other individuals who need their help).
CH. 2. PPT. SLIDES:
-How do we know what’s true? How to de create new knowledge?
-Universities are in the business of creating new knowledge through experimental research.
-The only way to find if something is true, is to test it.
-Science is a logical system that bases knowledge on direct systematic observation.
-There are three ways in which sociology is done:
-Scientific Sociology
-Interpretive Sociology
-Critical Sociology
-Scientific Sociology:
-Concept: a mental construct what represents some part of the world in a simplified
form
-Variable: a concept whose values change from case to case
-Measurement: a procedure for determining the value of a variable in a specific case
-Defining Concepts: operationalizing a variable - specializing what one intends to
measure in assigning a value to a variable
-Reliability: consistency in measurement
-Validity: actually measuring exactly what one intends
-Cause and Effect: a relationship in which change in one variable causes change in
another variable.
-Types of Variables:
-Independent: the variable that causes the change
-Dependent: the variable that changes (its value depends upon the
independent variable)
-Correlation: a relationship in which two or more variables change together.
-Spurious Correlation: an apparent but false relationship between two (or more)
variables caused by some other variable. To expose it uses control, holding
constant all variables except one in order to see clearly the effect of the
variable.
-Correlation does not always equal causation, there can be a multitude of factors that
impact experimental results.
-Replication: repetition by other researches, can help be self-correcting.
-Limitations of Scientific Sociology:
-Human behaviour is too complex to predict precisely any individual’s
actions.
-The mere presence of the researcher might affect the behaviour being
studied. (i.e. lying about something to avoid an uncomfortable
truth)
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