Class Notes (837,548)
Canada (510,312)
Sociology (2,978)
SOC 1500 (763)

Policing, Gender, Race and Penology Community Policing

10 Pages
Unlock Document

SOC 1500
Michelle Dumas

SOC*1500 Tuesday, November 20, 2012 Policing, Gender, Race and Penology Community Policing – prior to 1980s: police were law enforcements, authoritative – late 1970s-1980s: move to police service instead of force – opened to more service related job duties – interacting and participating with the public (community policing) – work and operational practice – organizational strategy and philosophy – must work together as equal partners to identify and solve problems in the community: disorder and crime (vagrancy, homelessness, prostitution) – work with community to come up with solutions, improve quality of life – requires department wide commitment – how to deal with the public, service orientated, work with community – establish trust with community, respond to concerns, interact – decentralizing and personality police services – not located in one place based on hierarchy – change personality of police services, less forceful, more service oriented – change “who can become a police officer”, from working class white males, to visible minorities (including women, only 14% of officers in Canada) – problems – concentrated in poor neighbourhoods, more likely to enforce law and over police the lower classes – racial profiling Police Work – proactive: police discover crimes through occupation from being there when the crime is being committed, through patrolling, stop it as it is taking place (drugs, prostitution, illegal gambling) – reactive: react/respond to reports from the public, most work that people do is reactive Five Stages – stage one (initial) – gather initial information, make a decision on whether to investigate, is it worth pursuing? – stage two (identification) – once an officer decides to pursue, through own investigation, identify offender(s) who might be responsible for the crime, suspects go through process to see whether they can be cleared – stage three (disposition) – choose disposition for each apprehended offender (warning, charges) – stage four (report) – fill out extensive report, provide all information based on investigation – stage five (court) – deciding to go to court if a personal pleas guilty, not guilty- is it worth going to court? Police Subculture – tight bond that exists due to the nature of their jobs (stressful, dangerous) – elements (values) – policing: police are the only real crime fighters, respond to and investigate crime, no one else understands police work like other officers – loyalty: to colleagues and other officers is paramount, need loyalty for protection of job – rules: in order to beat crime, the rules must be bent – public: see the pubic as unsupportive, unreasonable, hostile, binary moral order (police vs public), seen as potential suspect/criminal – detective work: preferable to patrol duty (patrol work: for those not smart enough to get out of it) – education has increased for officers (minimum requirement in Ontario is high school diploma, officers recruited usually have college/university degree, university preferred: better communication skills, more professional, cope better, fewer complaints from public, able to be promoted quicker, adaptable to different environments and duties) Police Screening – aka police discretion (to go forward, to investigate whether a crime has occurred) – first contact with public and victims and offenders – role – “police screening” – to decide whether or not to pursue the crime – based on: – crime: homicide, missing persons (less discretion), traffic violations (high discretion, give warning) – age: younger than 25, police are more likely to take it more seriously (whether victim or offender), policed more than any other age group – attitude: the more negative a person is, the more likely the police will go forward with taking formal action. Positive, polite, cooperative- less chance of charges – policies: each department has different policies which they follow Actions – 1. warning: lay charges/give ticket the second time, take home to parents (if under 18) – 2. questions: part of investigation, way to scare you, get more information – 3. report: write before releasing for future references, transmitted and distributed with other officers – 4. extrajudicial sanctions (measures): diversionary programs to keep young people out of court/prison, exclusive to juveniles, set up with program/community service – 5. charges: lay charges, making a formal accusation that you have committed a particular offence – 6. detention: release you on own recognizance (date to appear in court), or hold in detention for further processing (bail hearing) Police Misconduct – attention of media – use of excessive or deadly force – used with the intent to cause bodily injuries/death – until 1995: police allowed to shoot “fleeing felon” (committed a felon (indictable offence)) – misconduct – ethical conduct: typically related to corruption cases, police take evidence from crime scene, take for themselves, plant evidence to make someone appear guilty, accepting gifts (free coffee, food) – NY: work with drug dealers, selling and dealing drugs to make money – racial profiling: become more forefront in criminology over last 20-30 years – stereotyping people based on race/ethnicity – use of force – African American males most likely to be stopped, have excessive use of force used, most likely to be shot by police To Lay a Charge – definition: to make formal accusation of law-breaking against someone – complete an “information” form – take to JOP (Justice of the Peace) – swear an oath that the information provided is accurate, statement made by witness/victim, swear an oath, not typically video recorded, can be used later in court Arrests – not defined in the Criminal Code (no legal way to define) – definition – constraint of freedom by physical coercion or implication of possible coercion – not necessarily going to have charges laid against you, might just be a form of containing you in a particular place – physical force (order someone to freeze, come to department) – warrant: sanctioned by court – with warrant – lay charge against person, go before JOP, swear information is correct – JOP decides if it is in the public interest to arrest this person – if you do not show up in court on scheduled date, judge immediately issues warrant for arrest – without warrant – juvenile exception: can not be arrested without warrant without notifying parent/guardian – a) indictable offence: persona has committed/going to commit a serious offence – b) criminal offence: person found in the commission of a criminal offence – c) arrest warrant: a person subject to outstanding arrest warrant – d) terrorist: if they believe a person is going to engage in terrorist activities Search – prior to 1982, police had more discretion in searching a person, vehicle – intrusion on fundamental rights: exclusive cases, CCRF: Section 8 (4 Amendment) – residence/person: home, where you are – charges can be dropped at court if you were searched without reasonable doing so Dwelling - in a building/receptacle/place – with a warrant – a) offence (commit/suspect) – b) evidence: to suggest that an offence has occurred – c) purpose (without warrant): used for purposes for committing any offence against a person – procedure: warrant can not be produced until charges have been laid – without a warrant: – a) protection and evidence: protect him/herself, protect destruction of evidence – b) weapon: reasonable grounds to believe there is a weapon – c) drugs: open door, sees drugs, believes illegal drugs are present, anything in plain view Search of Person – includes immediate property (bag) – a) protection: for own protection, after making an arrest (looking for weapons) – b) substance: in the search of a place, reasonable guess that the personal has the drugs on them – school officials: may search a student under any circumstance, not restricted by law, if on school property, safety of children in schools more important than individual rights Questioning of Suspects – how people are interrogated – police have every right to lie to get information from suspect – confessions: through interrogation/talking to someone – admissible in court, will be used against you – a) voluntary: can be inadmissible if it is proven that it was not voluntarily given – b) rights and/or freedoms: did not infringe on the rights and freedoms of a person (example: obtaining a lawyer) Do Gender and Race Matter? – changed policing, some laws, the way we view crime and assault – domestic violence – gender – (interpersonal) violence: between couples – domestic violence, any type of violence between spouses, parents, family – views changed: prior to 1980s: treated as private matters (between couple), often left without taking action – feminists pushed to have police take it more seriously (majority of males- take male's side of the matter) – race/ethnicity: First Nation and Inuit experience more violence than non-Aboriginal women (3.5x more likely to suffer from violence) – 25% of Aboriginal people had a spouse abuse them Mandatory Arrest – removes police discretion, required to make a mandatory arrest if they believe someone has engaged in domestic violence (male-male, woman-woman, woman-male) – 1) police behaviour: consistent in a particular region, act in the same way, no longer a private matter, react in the same way no matter the individual – 2) protection: the escalating level of violence – 3) reduction: of incidents directly, indirectly- send the message that it is wrong – 4) discretion: remove discretion, couldn't decide to “just give a warning”, decide on other actions besides arrest – 5) “redistributive function”: police resources become more egalitarian, for all people to protect women and children USA: Empirical Search – reduces domestic violence – city (variation): some decreased, some increased – employment: status of offenders- those employed: decrease, unemployed: increased – short term and long term: reduce violence in the short run (in-term period of being arrested and going to court) – restraining orders: placed on violent offender, not always effective, legal order that a persona has to stay away from another person, from direct or indirect contact (can not get friends/family to harass) – males can be victims of domestic violence (in homo/heterosexual relationships) Canada: GSS (General Society Survey) – nature and consequences: 8% of adults married/common law, experience some form of violence – females vs. Males – women: more severe violence (4x likely to have serious injury), more serious categories of assault (beaten, threatened, threatened with weapon), experience more frequent abuse – males: more likely to be kicked, hit, or bitten GSS Type of Violence Women Men Total Violence 8.70% 7.00% Threatened to hit
More Less

Related notes for SOC 1500

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.