Tuesday, October 11, 2011
Lecture 4: The Criminalization of Sex Cont.
Hackler Ch. 14
Test 1 Review/Hints
o Study from lecture notes first, then use two textbooks to supplement what
you have learned; anything that isn’t mentioned in class will not be tested on
o Extra 10 min time frame (1.5 hours)
o 30 MC, 30 TF – about 40 , 4 (x10) SA– about 40-50 minutes for SA
o Answer 1 SA question from each lecture (2-3 choices from each) – Approx. ½
page to a page; quality over quantity
o HINTS FOR SA L4
a) Similarities between Humphrey’s and Deroches thoughts on tearooms
b) Causes of Prostitution – why do women become prostitutes according to
2 of the following 6 theories
c) Difference between what Badgley Committee findings and Fraiser
committee findings/suggestions – compare 2 reports; what do they find;
what are differences
d) Are youth in the sex trade victims or actors according to Brock and
e) What do radical feminists say about prostitutes and what is the criticism
of their view?
o HINTS FOR SA L3
a) Why do women commit crime? Why do men commit crime against
women? – According to 2 of the following feminist theories (Marxist,
socialist, radical, conservative, sexual socialization, power control theory,
b) Why did feminist theorists like Chesney-Lind, Johnson argue that the
justice system is used as a means to controlling women?
o HINTS FOR SA L2
a) What is Newman’s theory of defensible space?
b) Discuss Owen and Felson’s routine activities approach and provide 1
c) According to Fatah, likelihood of criminalization has several components
– what are they?
d) According to Owen and Felson’s routine activities approach, what are the
four techniques of crime control?
e) What did Widom find in her research on domestic violence?
o HINTS FOR SA L1
a) Who makes the laws? How are laws made according to the consensus,
conflict, and group conflict approach?
b) What are the two legal elements of a crime? (actus reus, mens rea –
discuss both) c) What are the three theories that explain why there regional differences in
d) What are the different explanations for why there are age differences –
maturational reform, Braithwaite
e) What are the different explanations for sex differences in crime?
f) What are the different explanations of Aboriginal overrepresentation in
Focus on the Individual: The Badgley Report
o Badgley Committee report (Committee on Sexual Offences Against
Children and Youth 1984): Prostitution among youth - emerged as a new
social problem in Canadian cities; majority of prostitutes report family
violence and the majority are from lower social strata > Prostitution among youth =
serious problem in Canada; found majority entered prostitution because of violence/abuse, poverty,
addiction to drugs
o Advocate criminalizing prostitution, so they could be given help: arrested
and rehabilitated > continue criminalizing prostitution; put them in jail – gets them off the
streets; arrest and rehabilitate them
o Recruiters (pimps)sexually exploit youth for monetary gain > exploited by pimps
who abuse them
o Psychological problems and economic deprivation, inadequate social support
and disconnection, low self-esteem and isolation, drug and/or alcohol
o Sexual abuse and exploitation influence youth involvement in the sex trade
Youth in the Sex Trade: Victims or Actors?
o Brock (1998): Youth entering the sex trade - practical solution given their
circumstances and opportunities; sex work is an economically rational
alternative in a free market economy that values youthful beauty and wealth
> Not all women who enter prostitution have been abused; enter by choice; women know that they are
valued for beauty+bodies – enter by choice to make good $
Focus on the Context: Youth as Actors
o Teenage prostitutes: Not always passive victims
o Gray (1973): Entering the sex trade - most feasible alternative - seeking out
a pimp may also be reasonable under some conditions; parental ties and
attachments were weak for teenage prostitutes - did poorly in school and
expressed little expectation of a happy marriage; had connection to someone
who was in the sex trade - attractions were social and material; aware of the
negative side > A lot of them run away from home, may have been drop outs; enter sex trade
because they knew of someone else in sex trade (social/material attraction - $$)
o Girls sought out pimps so that they could make it big
o Van Brunschot’s study in Calgary (1991): Juveniles pressured to have a
pimp to work > most of the time pimps force them to work for them
o Badgley Committee: Pimps kept girls in a sort of slavery and encouraged
drug use to keep the girls dependent Focus on the Structure of Society: Feminist Debate and the Fraser Report
• Feminist argument about the consequences of a patriarchal society:
Poverty-stricken women - few alternatives; feminists call for long-term
elimination of prostitution because it represents the exploitation of women >
Best solution: eliminate prostitution; stick with sisters, support them, hopefully in future we can end