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Lecture

March 4.docx

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC 2070
Professor
Linda Hunter
Semester
Winter

Description
SOC 2070 – March 4 , 2013 - Lecture Reinarman: drug Scares and Drug Laws: - anti-opium den laws of San Fran in 1875 directed against Chinese immigrants - anti-marijuana laws of Great Depression directed at Mexican Americans and later connected to drop-out, hippie counterculture that was corrupting morality of the youth - seven elements to drug scares o a kernel of truth o media magnification o politico-moral entrepreneurs  often the political elites – they make rules based on what they see as a social evil o professional interest groups o historical context of conflict o link a form of drug-use to a ‘dangerous class’ o scapegoating a drug for a variety fo social problems Moral Entrepreneurs: Campaigning - A) moral entrepreneurs: o those who construct moral meanings and associate them with particular acts or conditions by drawing on power and resources of:  institutions  agencies  symbols  ideas  communication to audiences - B) deviance-making o this process has two facets:  rule-creating  rule-enforcing - C) rule-creating may be done by persons acting alone or in groups o individuals: Reagan “Just say no” = Michael Moore for documentaries about big business and violence o groups: MADD, Group against smoking pollution - D) Moral entrepreneurs manufacture public morality through a multi-stage process beginning first with the generation of AWARENESS of a problem o Claims making - second hand smoking o Testimonials  People draw various testimonials for professionals in the field (like doctors, scientists, etc.) - E) Second stage involves MORAL CONVERSION or convincing others o Claims-makers must draw on elements of drama, novelty, politics and cultural myths to gain visibility for their issue o They seek support for sponsors and opinion leaders – celebrities for public endorsements o F) If successful such campaigns may foster a MORAL PANIC SOC 2070 – March 4 , 2013 - Lecture  Temporary but widespread concern about an issue, promoted by much media attention and sometime legislative attention  Stanley Cohen author of ‘Folk Devils and Moral Panics’  Moral panic occurs when a ‘condition, episode, person or group of persons emerges to become defined as a threat to societal values and interests’ Moral Panics - concern - hostility – us versus them - consensus - disproportionality - volatility – sudden disappearance then go on to another problem - example crack cocaine – triggered by cocaine related deaths - politicians using public anxiety around crack that was generated by the media to serve their political interests Drugs and Alcohol - socio-cultural - biomedical – body chemistry - social; uses of and reactions to drugs vary historically and from one culture to another - congress repealed prohibition in the 1920s and 1930s because many died from beverages containing dangerous impurities o they drank methanol instead of ethanol - still happens here people are too poor to buy lisenced to alcohol Nicotine - nicotine addiction o survey 2010 – smoking rate among 16-19 year olds dropped to 20% in 2005 from 29% in 2001 o still many people smoke because the harmful effects of tobacco are slower to develop o cigarette smoking has remained a cultural habit Alcohol Use - alcohol o drunk driving - alcohol more common than drug use o by grade 7  25% have used alcohol o by grade 12  83% o average age of first “drunkenness” – 14 o criticism of the alcohol industry  promotion of Alco pops (tasty alcohol!) - binge drinking post secondary SOC 2070 – March 4 , 2013 - Lecture o 40% of students have engaged in binge drinking with the past two weeks o campaigns about drinking moderately and responsibly o at least 1 in 5 work related accidents in Canada has to do with alcohol o it’s a social thing… people do it for stress.. etc. Media Depictions of Substance Abuse - Sherock Holmes, Gregory House, Trainspotting, Drugstore Cowboy, The Sopranos, The Wire - Dramas treat drug use and abuse as a matter of concern and marijuana use has remained an American comedy staple - More common today is a more negative troubled view of alcoholism and addiction Marijuana - short term effects - sleepiness, difficulty keeping track of time, reduced short-term memory, reduced ability to do tasks needing concentration, increased heart rate, and for some paranoia, hallucinations and decreated social inhibitions - long term effects o testosterone level in men o having kids for women o only some research has shown this Drug Use - cocaine – stimulant – for some highly addictive but not for others - heroin – most commonly injected drug – addictive - prescription drugs – Ritalin, oxycontin, anti-psychotics - drug use can become problematic and this depends on individual, community, family and peers o individual factors such as genetic and environmental predispositions o community factors such as norms about substance use, economic conditions, peers o family factors such as parenting style o academic success, problem solving abilities, belonging Theories of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - functionalist theories – substances fulfill a social role – social cohesion - critical theories – drug sales benefit some and others suffer Consequences of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - social consequences o crime-processing, manufacturing and trafficking o crimes associated with drug use to secure money o drunk driving – drunk drives are involved in more than one third of deaths cause by traffic accidents in North America SOC 2070 – March 4 , 2013 - Lecture o drug habits are costly – prostitution, theft, robbery to support habit - health consequences o alcohol o smoking o drugs – infections and overdoses Decriminalization and Legalization - decriminalization – removing from the Criminal code laws against marijuana possession and use - legalization – taking state control of the sale of these substances, as well as removing penalties for possession and use - legalization allows the state to tax sales of the drug and this would entail setting and enforcing quality standards o the legalization in the Netherlands was to reduce the hard drug use – but because of this policy, there has been no evidence suggesting that decriminalizing the soft drugs results in dramatic increases in substance abuse nor does it lead to use hard drugs like heroine or cocaine Cheri Bilitz – clinical director – Stonehenge Therapeutic Community - no outside communication, the only focus is the program – 14 days, very isolating - after treatment phase – some jobs in the community – if they have kids, they get one visit a weekend – only 1 call per week that is 15 minutes - community setting. Not a hospital – it’s done by the residents – 45 minutes of chores everyday – 15 hours day – 7 am – 930 pm everyday - 25 cents in the swear jar and 10 minutes away of free time – only one completes every year – it takes a lot to change and to be ready – no psychiatrist on site
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