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SOC*2070 Lecture Week 8.doc

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SOC 2070
Linda Hunter

Monday, Mar 4, 2013 Reinarman - The Social Construction of Drug Scares Reinarman: Drug Scares and Drug Laws - several major drug scares, anti-drug crusades involving a moral panic in society - alcohol: temperance movement to prohibition; primarily led by middle-class, Protestant, white Americans who felt threatened by the working-class, Catholic immigrants from Europe - anti-opium den laws of San Francisco in 1875 directed against Chinese immigrants - Anti-marijuana laws of Great Depression directed at Mexican Americans and later con- nected to drop-out, hippie counterculture that was corrupting morality of the youth Seven Elements to Drug Scares - a kernel of truth - media magnification - Politico-Moral entrepreneurs - Professional Interest groups - historical context of conflict - link a form of drug-use to a “dangerous class” - scapegoating a drug for a variety of social problems Constructing Deviance - Adler and Adler Moral Entrepreneurs: Campaigning, Awareness, Moral Conversion, Moral Panic Moral Entrepreneurs: Campaigning A. Moral Entrepreneurs: those who construct moral meanings and associate them with particular acts or conditions by drawing on power and resources of: - institutions - agencies - symbols or ideas - communication to audiences B. Deviance-making process has two facets - rule-creating - politicians, teachers, parents - rule-enforcing - police, judges, parents, RAs C. Rule-creating may be done by persons acting alone or in groups - individuals: Reagan “Just Say No”; Michael Moore for documentaries about big busi- ness and violence Monday, Mar 4, 2013 - groups: Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD), Group Against Smoking Pollution (GASP) D. Moral entrepreneurs manufacture public morality through a multi-stage process be- ginning first with the generation of AWARENESS of a problem - Claim’s making - second hand smoking - testimonials E. Second stage involves MORAL CONVERSION or convincing others - Claims-makers must draw on elements of drama, novelty, politics and cultural myths to gain visibility for their issue - they seek support of sponsors and opinion leaders - celebrities for public endorse- ments F. If successful such campaigns may foster a MORAL PANIC - temporary but widespread concern about an issue, promoted by much media attention and sometimes legislative attention - Stanley Cohen author of ‘Folk Devils and Moral Panics’ - Moral panic occurs when a “condition, episode, person or group of persons emerges to become defined as a threat to societal values and interests Moral Panics - concern - hostility - consensus - disproportionality - volatility - examples crack cocaine - triggered by cocaine related deaths - politicians using public anxiety around crack that was generated by the media to serve their political interests Drugs and Alcohol - socio-cultural - biomedical - body chemistry - social; uses of and reactions to drugs vary historically and from one culture to another - congress repealed prohibition in the 1920s and 1930s because many died fmor bever- ages containing dangerous impurities Nicotine Monday, Mar 4, 2013 Nicotine Addiction - survey 2010 - smoking rate among 16-19 year olds dropped to 20% in 2005 from 29% in 2001 - still many people smoke because the harmful effects of tobacco are slower to develop - cigarette smoking has remained a cultural habit Alcohol Use - alcohol - drunk driving Alcohol more Common than Drug Use - by grade 7 -> 25% have used alcohol - by grade 12 -> 83% - average age of first “drunkenness” = 14.0 Criticism of the Alcohol Industry - promotion of Alco pops Binge Drinking Post Secondary - 40% of students have engaged in binge drinking with the past two weeks - campaigns about drinking moderately and responsibly Media Depictions of Substance Abuse - Sherlock Holmes, Gregory House, Trainspotting, Requiem for a Dream, Drugstore Cowboy, The Sopranos, Nurse Jackie, The Wire - Dramas treat drug use and abuse as a matter of concern and marijuana use has re- mained an American comedy staple - more common today is a more negative troubled view of alcoholism and addiction Marijuana - short term effects - sleepiness, difficulty keeping track of time, reduced short-term memory, reduced ability to do tasks needing concentration, increased heart rate and for some, paranoia, hallucinations and decreased social inhibitions - long-term effects Drug Use - Cocaine - stimulant - for some highly addictive but not for others - Heroin - most commonly injected drug - addictive - Prescriptions Drugs- Ritalin, Oxycontin, anti-psychotics Monday, Mar 4, 2013 Drug use can become problematic and this depends on individuals, community, family and peers - individual factors as genetic and environmental predispositions - community factors such as norms about substance use, economic conditions, peers - family factors such as parenting style, family history in relation to substance use - academic success, problem solving abilities, belonging Theories of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - Functionalist Theories - substances fulfill a social role - social cohesion - Critical Theories - drug sales benefit some and others suffer Consequences of Drug and Alcohol Abuse Social Consequences - crime-processing, manufacturing and trafficking - crimes associated with drug use to secure money - drunk driving - drunk drivers are involved in more than one third of deaths caused by traffic accidents in North America - drug habits are costly - prostitution, theft, robbery to support habit Health Consequences - alcohol - smoking - drugs - infections and overdoses Decriminalization and Legalization - Decriminalization - removing from the Criminal code laws against marijuana posses- sion and use - Legalization - taking state control of the sale of these substances, as well as removing penalties for possession and use. Legalization allows the state to tax the sales of the drug and this would entail setting and enforcing quality standards Guest Lectures - Guests from Stonehenge Therapeutic Community - Cheri Bilitz, Clinical Director, Stonehenge Therapeutic Community - Residents from Stonehenge Therapeutic Community - Issues in Addiction and Stories of Recovery - 4 1/2 to 6 months Monday, Mar 4, 2013 - don’t focus on the addiction, the addiction is the solution to the problem - not a hospital, more like a community - 15 hour days - for every 2 people that go into the program, only 1 completes - not 12 step or religious based, based on support - staff team is more like a family, not out for the money, doesn’t pay well - like to see successes, don’t like to go to funerals (been to a lot) - don’t cure people, give them tools for when they leave - stonehenge is considered a halfway house (take criminals) - call them clients instead of patients because they are not a medical facility - very regimented, there are consequences if you swear, are late etc. Irene - arrived on October 9th - still in treatment - raised in Toronto - alright childhood - moved at 9 years old - parents were addicts, abusive towards each other and children - by 13 had first addiction which was food, became bulimic - by 14 was dating a 22 year old and began a lifestyle of alcoholism - dropped out at 17 - went back to school at 22 - decided wanted to live a party life - had a daughter in 2006 - sober for 18 months - began to drink again - when daughter was a year and a half decided didn’t want to be a housewife, went to sudbury, big mistake - had to give up daughter - just wanted to party, didn’t have anything to live for, tired of everything - had tried all kinds of drugs - when in sudbury, decided to become an intravenous opiate/cocaine user - homeless, lived in crack houses, working girls would get dressed at her house - had enough and wanted daughter back so moved to Welland (cocaine capital of on- tario) Monday, Mar 4, 2013 - got daughter back - man who introduced her to needles came with her - one day they decided to have a good time and did some lines and ended up back into needle use - that christmas spent $1700 on drug of choice and had nothing for daughter, no food or rent - found out she had renal cancer - did nothing about it, chose to live with it - 2010 daughter was apprehended - ended up going from shelter to shelter - 2010 got kidney removed and decided she wanted to make some lifestyle changes - decided not to be with the man, he began using other drugs and became very abusive - left him in september, came to kitchener - overdosed multiple times in 2 months - in toronto was in a women’s centre and started to make some long-term changes - decided to deal with trauma and eating disorder - applied for stonehenge - never went back to toronto - october 3rd got the phone call to come in on the 9th - was living on the streets in a cambridge shelter - got to treatment with 2 outfits, dirty clothes, had absolutely nothing - entered the program absolutely broken with no direction, missed out on being a moth- er, friend, sister, daughter - within first 2 weeks of program realized how hard it was going to be - self-esteem, trust and honesty were first 3 goals - in third phase right now, have to do reentry soon - going to be moving to fergus - suffered from post-traumatic - just introduced a concurrent disorder group - program has done wonders, saved her life, sees her daughter every weekend - have type 1 and 3 hep C - because of bulimia (food addiction), will have to get dentures at 33 years old - program has taught self-esteem, worth something more, even though she’s an addict she’s worthy of a life, being a moth
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