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Lecture 4

SOC*2700 Lecture Week 4

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SOC 2700
C Yule

Tuesday, Jan 29, 2013 Functionalist & Strain Theories Overview - review Quiz 2 - Turnitin presentation - Classical vs. Positivist Approach - Functionalist Perspective - Durkheim - Strain Theories - Merton, Agnew Preventing Plagiarism Pilot Study in CSAHS How To Avoid Plagiarism: 1. Establish paper trail: while researching your paper topic, maintain a list of sources used 2. As you are writing, cite! 3. Ensure you give credit for the ideas in your paper as you do for the words in your pa- per 4. Use technology to provide peace of mind ( - Turnitin is all available through courselink - have an unlimited number of opportunities to submit - could take up to 24 hours, the more you submit the longer it takes - you will get an originality report - don’t get lulled or freaked out by a low% similarity - you need to check every highlighted area to see if it is a problem Clare MacMartin Associate Dean (Academic) College of Social & Applied Human Sciences [email protected] Things to Remember: - identifying plagiarism involves interpretation - don’t aim for a certain similarity score - assignment type may lead to high scores - score: based on what’s in the Turnitin databases (may not catch all plagiarism) - author authenticity can’t be verified Distinctions: Classical Positivist What is Crime? Violation of social contract Pathology, inferiority, or sickness What is the nature of the Free will Determinism offenders? What should we control Swift, certain, proportion- Treatment, separation, criminals? ate punishment elimination Structural Functionalism - Macro sociological perspective - should focus on society not individuals - based on a metaphor that society is a living organism and that all parts are organized into a coherent and interdependent system that is necessary to sustain and reproduce social order - e.g. the family unit, the education system, organized religion - the existing social structure must be functional in order for society to work as it does - argument is not that the structure works for everyone but it works as a whole - Questions - How do social systems operate successfully? - How is order maintained in society? - Consensus-based approach - the basis of social order is found in the shared values - agreement about what is right and what is wrong Emile Durkheim - founder of modern sociology - in order for something to exist in society it had to serve a purpose/be functional - Crime is normal: 1. It has existed in every society e.g. when we get sick we’re in pain but it is normal and necessary to get better - normality of things we might see as negative 2. It serves as a moral guide, defining the boundaries of social rules 3. It creates social consensus and builds solidarity - Therefore, crime is functional Durkheim’s Causal Logic Rapid Social Change --> Weakened Social Controls --> Normlessness (anomie) --> Am- bitions > Ways to Achieve --> Crime & Deviance - Durkheim has an assumption about human nature: human beings have no internal mechanisms to signal when their needs or desires are satiated - people are selfish and their desires are limitless - greedy by nature - the more we have the more we want - without something to tell us what the limits are, we will commit crime - society provides the mechanism for limiting the insatiable appetite The Normal and the Pathological - “since there cannot be a society in which individuals do not diverge to some extent from the collective type, it is also inevitable that among these deviations some assume a criminal character. What confers upon them this character is not the intrinsic importance of the acts but the importance which the common consciousness ascribes to them” - Durkheim (1938) - there’s nothing inherently criminals about crime, crime becomes crime because we would define it - we would even find crime in a society of saints - that group of people will find some- thing to find criminal - not saying crime is good, saying it is inevitable Crime is ‘Functional’ - Social change is possible - Abortion law in Canada - Prostitution law in Canada - What happens when there is too much crime? - too much crime is pathological - role of crime is to publicly announce the boundaries - when too much exists and the moral order is weakened, that’s when anomie/normless- ness occurs - people no longer have that collective conscience - What does Durkheim say about individual offenders? - Are they normal? - doesn’t consider individuals in his theory Central Problem with Functionalist Theory 1. Ignores power in defining law 2. Therefore, it serves to maintain and justify the status quo Thursday, Jan 31, 2013 Functionalist & Strain Theories Cont’d Overview - Merton’s Original Strain Theory (1938) - Agnew’s General Strain Theory (1992) Strai
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