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Feb 1- Glycogenesis

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Biomedical Sciences
BMSC 230
Jon Stone

st February 1 , 2011 Glycogenesis (glycogen synthesis) UTP PPi UDP G6P G1P UDP-Glucose (Glycogen)n Pi (Glycogen)n+1 - 1 Reaction: transfer of phosphate group from carbon 6 to carbon 1 o Phosphogluco mutase (PGM) - 2 Reaction: hydrolytic reaction rd o UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase - 3 Reaction: glycogen synthase o Only forms 1-4 linkages Presence of H2O: hydrolase Presence of inorganic phosphate: phosphorylase Presence of inorganic pyrose: pyrophosphorylase Synthase: doesn’t require energy Synthetase: requires energy in the form of ATP Glycogen Synthase Reaction - Nst glucose is always added to the non-reducing end - 1 branch point is always alpha 1-6 linkage - The rest of the area is alpha 1-4 linkages - Need 4 glucose residues from the branch point for glycogen synthase to proceed - Once there is a minimum of 11 glucose residues from the branch point then new branches can be formed - Enzymes: glycogen synthase and glycogen branching enzyme Role of Glycogenin - 1 glucose added to amino acid 194 (Tyrosine residue) - The only 3 AA’s with hydroxyl (OH) groups are serine, threonine and tyrosine - Glucose is added to hydroxyl group o Catalyzed by glycogenin itself - Glycogenin can add up to 8 glucose residues and then… - Glycogen synthase takes over and continues to add glucose residues th Glycogenolysis (glycogen breakdown) - 4 reaction (as shown above) - Hydrolytic reaction in the presence of inorganic phosphate - Enzyme: glycogen phosphorylase o Only breaks down alpha 1-4 linkages - Enzyme: glycogen debranching enzyme o Breaks down alpha 1-6 linkages to produce glucose o Transfers glucose residues from one branch to another - Reaction starts on the non-reducing end - Removal of one glucose at a time until there are only 4 r
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