NS 298 Jan 15th.odt

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University of Saskatchewan
Indigenous Studies
INDG 298
Allison Piché

Nth298 January 15 2013 1 An introduction to aboriginal incarceration in Canada – “tough on crime” – American/Canadian politicians don't want to be considered “soft on crime” – difficult to not take this stance – idea or appearance to make safer communities, to clean up the streets – three strikes laws – mandatory minimal sentences Bill C 10: Safe Streets and Communities Act – passed March 12 2012 – critics: Texans and Californians – along with other politicians – have implemented and tried many measures found in Bill C10 and did not find significant results – mandatory minim sentences – harsher sentences for young offenders – illimination of conditional sentences for minor crims – opposition – Canadian Bar association – john howard and elizabeth fry society – increased number of people behind bars – impact on aboriginals – implementation cost, were unknown – strain an already overloaded system Cost • important to know where the money is going • community sentences most cost effectively • per day $578/ female $300/male within Canada • most of the money goes to opportunity costs Prison Industrial Complex – growth of prison as an industry (USA) – rise of private prisons – the co operations that benefit from supplying the institutions – USA is moving back towards making money off the prisoners – concern with corruption – brokers go back and forth between the prisons to find beds for prisoners Recidivism: a tendency to relapse into a previous condition or behaviour, Nth298 January 15 2013 2 especially relapse into criminal behaviour – most often the measurement that program effectiveness is determined – if fewer inmates return to prison the program is considered successful Incarceration in Canada • office of the correctional investigator acts as a general over-site and moderator of corrections Canada ◦ identifies the challenges ◦ releases a report every year • issues/challenges that inmates and staff deal with on a daily basis • if we have a better understanding of the needs we can tailor the program to the needs Excuse vs. Explanation – to have a more comprehensive understanding – education – what do we know about all inmates in Canada – 65% of those in jail test at less than a grade 8 level – 82% test at less than a grade 10 level – information poverty – limited access to quality reference and education material – no access to internet – result, upon release are not prepared for society – lacking skills and information to compete for jobs or reengage socially – there are programs in the states that allow limited access to internet – the office of the correctional investigator says there is not valid reason as to why we haven't fixed this Health – overall federal inmates have poor health in comparison to general population – 40% more likely for diabetes – 68% cardiovascular – 43% asthma – increasing in older and ageing offenders – 1/5 inmates is 50 or older in federal corrections – health care budget is increasing to reach demands – 200 million in the budget – 50 million to mental – infectious disease and drug use – hard to get accurate numbers Nth298 January 15 2013 3 – hard to get solid numbers – drug seizures have increased – better moderating practices? Or increased frequency use of drugs? – Drug trade is linked to gangs – significant contributor to violence – gangs are linked to 25% of all major security incidents – 2/3 were under the influence of an intoxicant when commuting offence (federal) – 4/5 offenders arrive at prison with a history of substance abuse – higher rates of infectious diseases – HIV 7-10 times higher – HCV 30-40% – 4.6% of inmites have HIV – 31% have HCV – aboriginal women 11.7% HIV 49% HCV – 17% of men and 14% of women injected drugs in prison – 1/2 shared injection equipment – including inmates they knew had HCV HIV... ect – funding for programing as dropped – 2008-2009 11 million – 2010-2011 9 million Zero Tolerance vs Harm Reduction – Zero: immediate and swift punishment for all substance – meant to be a deterrent – harm reduction: – reduce negative consequence of risky behaviours, even if those behaviours are illegal – often refers to the reduction of harm when using illegal substance – harm reduction measures within a public health and treatment orientation offer a far more promising, cost effect and sustainable approach to reducing substantial crime and victimization – critics: – in allowing or acknowledging it takes place we're saying its okay – if they can be done safely the rate of involvement will increase – proponents – reduces the spread of infectious disease – no higher raters of drug use – users are more likely to seek treatment for addictions and other health issues th 298 January 15 2013 4 Tattooing – illegal really, the needle is a weapon Mental Health in Prison – correlation between those with substance abuse and who have mental illness – often misunderstood by staff – inability to follow rules – self mutilation – – inmates are often subject to more discipline, sent to higher security and separation from the population – 35% have mental illness – 4/5 offenders have a substance abuse problem – both federal and provincial have mental illness strategies – provincial – in and out without receiving treatment – high likelihood they will re-offend solitary confinement – a prison within a prison – the “hole” – implies or involves intense sensory deprivation – not part of Canadian legal framework – instead Canada uses disciplinary/administrative segregation – segregation for violence, assault, self harm, mental illness issues – found to be used for stupidly long periods of time – length of stay – in the last 5 years was 40 days – 13% of segregated offenders stayed for more than 120 days – used to manage mentally ill offenders usually – if they cannot handle normal population or there is no room at the centres sub-populations – offenders with distinct needs or associations – gang affiliation – mental health needs – special needs or secure living – segregation lite – segregation by any other name – sections of units, units or ranges (row of cells) that have restrictions on movements or associations – also known as alternative housing units Nth298 January 15 2013
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