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PHSI 208 (100)
Lecture 1

PHSI 208 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Peritubular Capillaries, Juxtaglomerular Apparatus, Afferent Arterioles


Department
Physiology
Course Code
PHSI 208
Professor
Baillie Landon
Lecture
1

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!PHSI!208.6!–!University!of!Saskatchewan!
!Prof:&Landon&Baillie&
!
January'25,'2016'–'Renal'1'
!
Since!ancient!times,!urine!characteristics!have!been!used!as!an!indicator!of!health:!
Colour:!Yellow,!pale!straw,!red!(blood!in!urine),!or!even!black!(presence!of!Hb!in!urine,!
known!as!blackwater!fever).!
Clarity:!Froth!(high!protein!content).!
Odor!
Taste:!In!diabetes,!excess!glucose!can!be!found!in!urine.!Diabetes!was!historically!known!
as!honey-urine&disease.!
!
Functions'of'the'kidneys:&The!most!important!function!of!the!kidneys!is!homeostatic!regulation!
of!water!and!ion!content!of!the!blood!(salt-water!balance!or!fluid-electrolyte!balance).!
Functions!broken!down!are:!
1. Regulation!of!extracellular!fluid!volume!and!blood!pressure:!kidneys!work!with!the!
cardiovascular!system!to!ensure!blood!pressure!and!tissue!perfusion!remain!constant.!
2. Regulation!of!osmolarity:!integrates!kidney!function!with!thirst!behaviour!to!maintain!
blood!osmolarity!at!~290mOsm.!
3. Maintenance!of!ion!balance:!Na+!as!well!as!K+!and!Ca2+!by!adjusting!dietary!intake!
with!urine!loss.!Na+!is!the!main!controller!of!extracellular!fluid!volume.!
4. Homeostatic!regulation!of!pH:!If!plasma!becomes!acidic,!kidneys!remove!H+!and!
conserve!HCO3-,!and!vice!versa.!
5. Excretion!of!wastes:!By-products!of!metabolism,!drugs,!hormones.!Urobilinogen!gives!
urine!its!yellow!colour.!
6. Production!of!hormones:!Erythropoietin!(increases!production!of!RBCs)!and!renin!(helps!
to!maintain!blood!pressure!and!Na+!balance)!lead!to!production!of!hormones!involved!
in!Na+!balance!and!blood!pressure!homeostasis.!
!
Reserve&capacity:&1!in!every!1000!babies!are!born!with!1!kidney,!and!can!lose!¾!of!kidney!
function!before!affecting!homeostasis.!
!
To!ensure!blood!is!constantly!monitored!and!filtered,!kidneys!receive!20-25%!of!cardiac!output.!
!
! !
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