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Political Studies
POLS 364
Ron Wheeler

POLS 364: International Terrorism Class Notes September 8, 2011 Terrorism is a concept that isn‟t always used fairly. - Analysts and media often try to solve problems by trying to determine what is/isn‟t a legitimate target. - Attacks are all considered wrongful because of attacks on innocent parties. Often derogatory or majoritive terms. - Applied selectively to denounce certain groups and to sometimes spare others. - Brian Jenkins first to describe terrorism as a majoritive term. - Contains a term like “evil.” - To label someone a terrorist is to say their violence is immoral or terrible. o To use different terms for political violence, like “freedom fighters,” “revolutionaries,” “rebels,” “resistance fighters,” is to suggest that the violence is motivated by something good and higher, like democracy, freedom or justice. - A guerilla will usually admit to being a guerilla and a revolutionary will accept to the label “rebel.” But very few will accept the term “terrorist.” o Settlers/colonialists cannot be named “terrorists.” - Some of the most brutal and inhumane treatment of innocent victims come from governments?! o Gadhafi is a good example. o Nelson Mandela is another example. o Menachen Begin led a terrorist group that tried to drive the British out of Israel.  Indiscriminate bombing of a hotel.  Moved on to become prime minister of Israel about 20 years later. - Noam Chomsky believes that the label comes from governments to define their opponents. - Osama bin Laden said that “our enemy is every American whether packing a gun or paying taxes.” - Kofi Annan, former secretary general of the UN, defined terrorism as “attacks by subnational groups on non-combatants in order to achieve a political goal.” - Al-Qaeda‟s attack on the USS Cole o People question whether that attack was a terrorist attack or not. - A useful way of thinking about terrorism is that it is asymmetrical warfare. It‟s what the weak do because they‟re not strong enough to play on a level playing field. September 13, 2011 Terrorism - Someone taking credit for pain/suffering - Second perspective: o There has to be some sort of audience o Terrorism can be seen as asymmetrical warfare Politics/Discussion POLS 364: International Terrorism Class Notes Schelling - Difference between coercive and violent terms - For terrorists, it may not matter which targets they select, as long as it achieves impact they want - 99% of cases  they want to influence authority - Sometimes, authority is the same source itself. - Governments often do things that warn of continuing pain Coercive violence - Whether we want to call it terrorism, it kind of is - Usually, war will start with minimal force against each other - What distinguishes terrorism is that it promises future violence Peter Sederberg - CIA manual existed for terrorists/freedom fighters - - Terrorism was meant to be into the brains of the American people and their opponents o to affect their choices o goal  to affect authority and their choices Walzer POLS 364: International Terrorism Class Notes - wrote randomness is essential characterism of terrorism - death must come by chance - nationalism/separatism is where terrorists are fighting for their own people - ideology: fighting for their values/views o  Irish Republic Army  Tamil Tigers  Kurdish Workers Party  ETA (Basque Separatists) Kach (Jewish group) - Responsible for acts of terror in Los Angeles and Israel Environmental Terrorists  Animal Liberation Front - Racism is sometimes objective (KKK) - Money is often made by joining terrorist groups - A lot of terrorists have utopian visions September 15, 2011 - States provide terrorists with money, knowledge and ideology. - Most terrorists were always younger, rather than older. - There are certain combinations of demographic: o If you have no economic future, you are more likely to be recruited… - Sageman o Given opportunity to interview individuals in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. o Average age for joining was 26 years. o There‟s deprivation, which leads to greed. o Boxers (dogs) become dangerous because of pack behaviour.  They also become vicious because of resentment.  Old memories can resent owners/people. o A lot of people think we should look for Muslims carrying a Quran as racial profiling. o Shiite  Wanted to be left alone.  Wanted religious officials to know that they‟d pay a price if they put too much pressure on them o Assassins  Hassassin (follower of Hassan)  Hassan was a Hashish probhibitionist.  Really has nothing to do with situation.  By recruiting young boys, he was able to recruit a strong group of fanatics who were willing to die.  Would sneak into tents and homes/offices of government officials and kill them (usually by stabbing).  Bombed targets and became martyrs. o Zealots (Sicarii)  Tactic was to attack Jewish theologians (priests in synagogues).  Jewish uprising did not occur, but Roman retribution did.  Thousands were killed and Jerusalem was sacked by the Romans. o Thugs (Thuggee)  Women turned their garments into handkerchiefs to use to strangle people.  Would befriend someone and then strangle them. September 20, 2011 Tyffany was out of class for an eye exam. Therefore, she will require notes. First Manifestations of Terrorism - Actions of violence to usher in the Christian millennia - A lot of self-proclaimed prophets said they received messages from God. POLS 364: International Terrorism Class Notes o A lot of them went on to commit violence against Jews o Protestants were victims of some of these acts, as well as Catholics (by Protestants). th - Until the 18 century, all (or most) acts of terror had a religious cause - A lot of different inquisitions from the Catholic papacy o Terrorism was during 13 and 16 centuries o Thousands were killed; 10,000s had their lives ruined and hundreds of thousands were tortured - If anyone was accused of magic or sorcery, they were tried - In 1233, the Dominicans were given the primary Charter by the Pope to act as prophets o They all answered to the papacy o Directed towards Cathars Cathars - Believed Jesus was a spirit o Unacceptable to church - Church set out to rid Cathars o Many were killed o Others were tortured until they admitted they were Cathars Pope Sixtus IV - Commissioned King Ferdenand and Princess Isabella to appoint an inquisitional speech - Sent inquisitors to investigate heresy, which involved burning people at the stake - 100,000 people were sentenced as heretics  Torquemada Torquemada (inquisitor) - Investigated people to see if they worshipped gods beside Jesus o If evidence existed, it would be documented o People often named their neighbours o Distributed information about how to spot herietics  Led to guilt by association  Suspicion was cast everywhere o All trials were held in secret  Not everyone could have a lawyer  If anyone was guilty, the lawyer was then suspected of being a heretic. Waterboarding - Investigated people to see if they worshipped gods beside Jesus - It was often used in Spain. - An individual was tied to a rack; mouth was forced open and water was poured to give off effect of suffocation - “Witches” were often “dunked” in the water, then brought up for confession. o If they refused, they were dunked again. o If they confessed, they would be burned. Up until the French Revolution, every act of terrorism was largely religious in ature. Robespierre - Turned revolution into “reign of terror.” - It was new to have terror used for purposes other than religion. - French Revolution had huge influence on Europe o Influenced anarchy, radicalists and socialists. 19 century revolutionary terrorism - Philosophers and strategists of terrorism existed o People wrote about it with methods of how to better execute it Karl Heinzen POLS 364: International Terrorism Class Notes - First figure to provide full-fledged doctrine of terrorism - Wrote essay titled “Murder” - German radical democrat o Fighting against Aristocratic elites - Prepared to use violence - In his book, he talks about the “party of the barbarians,” which referred to the emerging political parties of the Aristocracy - Argues murder is physical necessity to claim the state of the people Sergei Nachaev - Was a “revolutionary” from Russia - Wanted to bring down established governments in the name of the people - Published a book  “Catechism of a Revolutionary” Peter Marshall - Historian of the 19 century - Describes Nachev‟s book as “one of the must repulsive documents in the history of terrorism” o Book stated that a revolutionary is a “dedicated man.” o The revolutionaries despise all “established facts” Johann Most - Was a British anarchist - Made a pamphlet that represented Marx‟s works - Questioned terrorism movements that didn‟t involve violence - Did not really commit any violent acts - Was eventually forced into exile  went to USA Georges Sorel - Said bourgeois society was decadent - Was a socialist Bin Laden - Before September 11, he said that expressing hate and anger was sacred o It was an important gesture o It gives a sense of morality Hezbollah - There is no martyr greater than making yourself than a human bomb - Had a lot of 20 century influence September 22, 2011 In the 1920s, 30s and 40s, terrorism took a different turn as a result of the economic climate in Europe. As a result of the outcome of WWI, which created a great deal of dissatisfaction, the rise of fascist movements began to emerge. Other countries including Austria and Norway were included. - One of the things that characterized the movements o Resulted in thugs terrorizing innocent people on the streets. o It also resulted in thugs creating the result of Hitler coming to power. - Mussolini o Imported anti-Semitism into the Italian Fascist Party o Some of the highest-ranking members found themselves not only out of power, but nobody would talk to them  People were afraid of being associated with them o Often, hatred already existed. Nationalist violence POLS 364: International Terrorism Class Notes - After WWII, when Germany pulled out of areas they had come to seize, such as Vietnam and parts of Northern Africa. - Once the axis powers were forced to withdraw (Italy, Germany and Japan), there were resistance movements that had been fighting those axis powers. - When Germany - In Vietnam, there was a communist movement that had been fighting against the French for a couple of decades. - Most of these liberational national movements were left-leaning o A lot of them had communists in their leadership Guerrilla warfare - Uses warfare to seize power - French and Vietnamese fought at Dienbienphu, which resulted in significant losses for the French o Paid a terrible price. o Viet Minh lost many, many more soldiers than the French o You don‟t always need the support of everybody, or the majority for that matter. Lawrence - Said of the guerrilla o Says it must be an idea o Japan  Strong enough to defeat Russia in two wars  Was the power in the far East  Invaded in China in two waves  Strong enough to attack Pearl Harbor o Communists often brought food and medicine. o Soviets withdrew in such a way that it made it easy for the Japanese communists to move in. - Stalin o Believed we should always be self-reliant instead of accepting foreign assistance - Mao o Enemy retreats, we pursue… - Became guerrilla warfare by the masses - Would become an inspiration a lot of guerrillas on other continents - Guerillas can be terrorists o Mao‟s model o They employ models of hit and run o They don‟t always employ terrorism as o Latin American revolutionaries Ché Guevara - Don‟t stand and fight until you become stronger. - The guerilla fighter will be a sort of guiding angel. Carlos Marighella - First of group of urban guerrillas - Says terrorism or any type of violence is acceptable to bring down a government o Attack targets that are symbolic o Create climate of fear - Not all guerillas followed mao‟s model. September 27, 2011 There was always communism around the world. Some views have surfaced since the Cold War. These movements apparently didn‟t have much of a terrorist influence. POLS 364: International Terrorism Class Notes There have been some movements that have had a strong terrorist component. Many guerilla movements relied in part on terrorism and some didn‟t. Tamil Tigers - More accurately, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). - Until its demise in 2009, was arguably the most lethal and well-organized terrorist group in the world. - It had its own army. - Cultural values wanted independence from majority. - Some used terrorism to force Sri Lanka to grant independence to Tamils. - The northern part of Sri Lanka is the poorest part and the government did little besides making it poor. - The Tamil Tigers arose to liberate their people from what they saw as an oppressive sin of rule. - Gained independence for themselves. - To achieve that goal, they used conventional military means. - They engage in guerrilla warfare all over the north. - In 26 years, 23,000 people died in Sri Lanka. - Estimated membership was 6K-15K fighters. o They were guerrillas and they don‟t stay put or respond to census takers. o They are hidden in mountains, etc. - Many women were known as “freedom birds,” which were one unit of the “black Tigers.” o Sort of black-ops of this revolutionary movement. o One of them assassinated an Indian prime minister (Rajeev Gandhi), as well as a Sri Lankan president. - A movie was made that was based on this event. - Some undoubtedly believed nationalism was a motivating factor while others believed it was because ideology with the crazy Marxist views. - According to Unicef, there were thousands of children that were assigned military duties by the Tigers. - The children have been the subject of a lot of articles Anger, revenge and others were motivational reasons to bomb the Tigers. - Just the idea that it is right that we rule ourselves was important to young children, women and everybody else. - This was seen as a war of national liberation. - The Tigers would come to control a lot of territory. - Engaged in a variety of attacks. - Government of Canada declares Tamil Tigers a terrorist organization. - Tactics used in Sri Lanka included air missiles, etc. o Pretty well armed. - Until 2009, it was the best armed terrorist organization. o Government decided to launch a military offensive against the Tigers. o Fairly well-documented by Amnesty International and eventually, the United Nations. o Under intense international criticism, the government of Sri Lanka established elections ni the north and launched their own investigation of human casualities.  Refused to allow UN to do so. o First elections were held 7/26/11, which failed.  In 15 of the 20 districts, the gov. won the election, which were actually illegal. o ETA  Attacked military and police personnel, as well as businessmen, elected parliamentarians and politicians in general. Arnold Oregi - One of the top ETA leaders claimed to now be a Democrat, kind of like those Jihadis in Libya and Egypt. - He claimed to be for democracy. POLS 364: International Terrorism Class Notes - Captured this year and sentenced to ten years in prison on charges of belonging to ETA. PKK – - In the Kurdish language, it stands for the Kurdish Workers Party. - This is a Marxist-Lennonist group. - Best understood as a nationalist group. - Popular nowhere because none of the states they occupy want to give up territory for a Kurdish state. - All of these states take action against the PKK. - Very well-organized group and very successful. - Surfaced in Turkey. - Significant military force since the 80s. - In some cases, the government has sent numerous troops in an attempt to defeat the PKK. o In one year, the government spent $8 billion, making up 10% of the government‟s income. - Lots of money to be made, but not legally. - The Turkish government has for years tried to win over people with attempts to stop attacks in Kurdish areas. o PKK is still very active though. Chechnyan Movement September 29, 2011 Chechnyan Movement - Relations between Russian and Chechnyans have been very bad for hundreds of years. - Chechnyans have their own language. - In 1991, this became a very active movement seeking its own state. - As the USSR was collapsing in 1991, the Chechnyya National Movement declared independence, brought down communist leadership and wrestled control away from communist forces… even seizing control of KGB headquarters. - They were not able to put down the movement. - Approximately 700 people were attending a performance in Dabrovka Theatre in Moscow. o 40-60 people Checnyan hostage takers moved in and took everyone hostage. - The women active in the resistance are mostly women whose husbands have been killed in waging battles with Russian forces. o They call themselves the “black widows.” India - There have been bombings in India that have produced very heavy casualities. - The global terrorism database maintained at the University of Maryland began in 2001 when researchers wanted to keep track of terrorism incidents. o Researchers were mainly retired air force personnel. Tashmir - An important part as to why India is so heavily targeted from the north. - There were a lot of principalities in India that were under British rule o Sometime referred to as princely states - In Tashmir, the prince, who was asked if he wanted his state to be a part of India or Pakistan, decided to be part of India as Tashmir. o It was not accepted by the new state of Pakistan or by a lot of Muslims in Pakistan. o Officially, it is a part of India because of the choice of India in 1947. o Disputed territory because Pakistan has never accepted it. o Some terrorist groups were funded by the Pakistani government and security forces. Lashkan e-Torba - A group that bin laden made contact with. - There was an initial boom that nationalists POLS 364: International Terrorism Class Notes - A lot of groups that were held within existing states like Yugoslavia or USSR sought to achieve self rule o Has been going on steadily since 1990s A lot of protestors during the 60s at Berkeley were very left-wing and called themselves “new left.” - They were concerned about environment, human rights, women‟s rights and various freedoms that they would fight for. October 4, 2011 Martin Luther King, was assassinated. George Wallace, the Governor of Alabama was shot, but not killed. Student protesters were killed at Kent State. James Rector was shot and killed by the police in Berkeley, California. - There were a lot of issues that kind of show the formation of different groups that would go beyond protesting. - The people‟s part demonstration in 1969 was a bunch of student protesters and hippies from San Francisco that turned a parking lot into a park. o Turned it into a people‟s park. o One night, the police showed up and tore down all tents of people and put up a chained fence around this “park” and reclaimed it for the University of California. - Third world liberation protests o Had to do with foreign aid and U.S. intervention in third-world countries that were not Vietnam oriented. o Communists were not allowed to speak on campus at the University of California. o Addiction became a major issue. o It became difficult to become apathetic in Berkeley. o Became a revolution that would sweep the world o People hung out at coffee joints to talk about women‟s issues, discrimination, poverty, and what they were prepared to do. - Black Panthers Movement o Were all terrorists or protestors… supposedly? o Panthers were an integral part of protests and whatever else went on at Berkeley  Came out of Oakland, California  Born in the “ghetto.” o Arose in the mid-60s  Founded by Eldridge Cleaver, Nuey Newton and Bobby Seale  Advocated taking up arms to protect the black community against white police officers, establishment  They read books by Frantz Fanon, who was an Algerian psychiatrist  All radicals of that day read Fanon o Talked about the oppressed people in the third world to take massacres of their own destiny o Recommended violence and wanted to liberate blacks o Newton attended Oakland Schools and claimed he was made to feel ashamed of being black.  Read the works Guevara  Eventually formed the Black Panther Party of Self Defense  Wore black uniforms and packed heat  Paraded around Oakland and Berkeley, marching in military formation  Shouting out their demands against the establishment  Went to Sacramento and barged into legislature with guns and demanded liberation of blacks in California  Panthers took on titles such as “Minister of Foreign Affairs” and “Minister of Finance.”  Cleaver was Minister of Defence.  Mostly uneducated blacks from the ghettos. POLS 364: International Terrorism Class Notes  Most of them were lacking a good education, but could still read some of the revolutionary literature.  One of the causes was to try and liberate and Newton, who was booked on charges of shooting a cop.  There were three hung juries in his prosecution, so he had to be released.  There were huge demonstrations. o After Newton was released, he took over the Black Panthers again and tried to steer it on a less violent path.  Cleaver was however, opposed to that. o Cleaver founded the Black Liberation Army  According to the U.S. Justice Department, he was suspected of being involved in over 60 incidents of violence. o George Wright was convicted in 1962 for killing a gas station owner. He escaped ten years later.  Released prisoners for $1 million ransom before flying to Nigeria and found sanctuary there.  On September 28, 2011, he was arrested just outside Lisbon, Portugal. o When the Black Panthers barged into the legislature, that was an act of terrorism. The Weatherman radical white community. - A lot of them were students at Berkeley. - They liked to blow things up rather than shoot up people or things. - Corporate offices for large companies were bombed. - Were in small cells close to university campuses, which meant in major cities around the country. - Bombings took place around the United States (oil, Bank of America, etc. were hit). - They hoped it would the beginning of a civil war that they would be starting. - Somehow, things were never the same again. Bill Ayers - Achieved some notoriety a few years ago that Barack Obama and Bill Ayers both sat on a non- profit board because they both lived in Chicago. Symbionese Liberation Army - Based in Oakland, just like the overrated Panthers. - On February 4, 1974, this group that nobody had ever heard of before, shocked the world by kidnapping Patty Hearst. - They made demands that William Randolph-Hearst provide $70 of free food to every poor person in California. o Was provided with offer to $2 million to the poor o Army wanted $6 milliion  Said he‟d provide $6 million only if Patty was released, unharmed. - Patty Hearst o Subjected to many humiliations and was often sexually assaulted. o Forced to record messages to her parents. o Forced to submit sexually to all men in the group. o She eventually joined to fight “corporate ruling class” and the establishment. o One day in 1974, captured in film, army robbed a San Francisco branch of the Hibernia Bank  Patty Hearst was the gunman o She didn‟t spend a whole lot of time in jail. o Was issued a pardon by Bill Clinton in 2001. James Kilgore - Arrested by South African government in 2002 at request of U.S. government - Working as political scientist at a university in Cape Town and published works under alias POLS 364: International Terrorism Class Notes - He and George Wright were apprehended many years after their crimes - Further step where you engage in civil disobedienc exists  violence against the state  this is where the Weathermen were  they blew up buildings and blew up offices without any warning o They wanted to make life miserable for the establishment. In 1968, student movements in France, Italy and Germany were fighting against corporate power. Vietnam, degradation of the environment… etc., rights of women. - They were largely student protests. - Really just claimed to be fighting for the poor.: Andreas Baader - Him and his girlfriend firebombed a department store in Frankfurt, Germany before being captured and being put in prison. - Two years later, famous journalist Ulrike Meinhof managed to help Baader break out of prison. - A lot of Germans lived in fear because they had the red army faction. - Another group called the revolutionary cells and engaging in kidnapping and bombings in other ways. o Most of them were captured. o Most of the original members of both the red army and Meinhof gangs were captured. - But as they functioned, they built up a larger following. - Meinhof was captured and hung herself in prison. - Read stuff from communists like Ho Chi Minh. - They had several hundred supporters by the time they took their own lives. - After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the German government released a statement stating that the Red Army is no longer a serious terrorist threat. - Haule was released in ‟07 after bring in prison for the murder of a U.S. soldier in 1985. o Spent 21 years in prison. o In 2008, a Red Army faction leader named Klar was released? October 6, 2011 Anwar al-Awlaki - Is an American and was educated in the United States and spoke very fluent English - Had a considerable amount of charisma - Some were called to act - Many were thrown in jail that turned out to be innocent - No American is immune from presidential power?! Whoa… - Congress can charge a president or impeach him and try him in the Senate. Squamish Five - Early 1980s terrorist group in Canada - Inspired by the new left experience - New left group that had lots of issues - First action was plant a bomb in porno store in Vancouver - Women‟s issues were high on agenda and as well as prevention of war - They were environmentalists as well. - They didn‟t see themselves as old-style Stalinists - New left was essentially a youth movement and saw itself as fighting for a number of causes and even struggling against the Soviet Union, which they saw as the establishment - They were not directly influenced by ideology - Ann Hansen was founder of group o Went to Germany in early 20s o Became associated with those in Red Army faction in Germany, which was more of a Marxist-Lennist group what which she ever was o Met with those associated with Baader-Meinhof gang o She and her boyfriend decided to take “action.” o Talked about need to take violent action and decided to form group to do so o Took several months to convince themselves they had the right people and eventually formed Squamish Five o Went out and vandalized offices of mining offices POLS 364: International Terrorism Class Notes o Eventually bombed Red Hot Video chain o Most famous act was bombing Litton Industries o Went across BC, Alberta and Saskatchewan with thousands of tonnes of dynamite o Arrested in 1983 while attempting to rob a Brinks truck - Spent many, many months underground while hiding in apartments and a couple of people knew about them, but never knew what they would do. - Charges were fiiled: o Conspiracy to robbery o Conspiracy to sabotage aircraft, radar equipment, fuel tanks o Setting off explosions at BC Hydro o Diagrams and intent to cause serious damage to power lines o Wilfully setting fire to Red Hot Video outlets o Attempting to set fire to Red Hot Video in Port Coquitlam o Possession of prohibited/restricted weapons o Possession of stolen property o She threw a tomato at the judge - Everyone served small sentences of 5-7 years - Hansen was sentenced to life, but was paroled in 1992 - In 2001, Hansen published memoir - Hansen said Farley Mowatt had a big impact on her. - It was about fighting the state/establishment. - Tried to figure out targets with most destruction to establishment - Did not want to kill people - Hansen saw them as focused on property rather than people. - Believed corporate involvement was an act of terror - Advocated direct action and believed it would inspire other people - Hansen said she did not want to kill anyone and actions they took had to fit into their political views - She said she never had a good hiding place and always found apartments with multiple doors - Her job was stealing cars and repairing them. Red Brigades of Italy - Wanted to take on bourgeoisie movements in Italy - A lot of resistance fighters included students with middle-class backgrounds - Red Brigades ran up an impressive string of attacks on the government - They assassinated a mayor, general in Italian army and kidnapped another American general - Killed one of closest advisors to the prime minister - Set off a lot of bombs - Bombings/assassination were main methods - A lot of them were apprehended and put in prison - Some of them are now getting out - One of the leaders got out of jail in 2011 after having served two decades in prison Prima Linea - One of the most violent groups October 11, 2011 People Revolution‟s Army - In a recent bombing of oil pipelines, the People‟s Revolution Army released a demand that they would continue to bomb pipelines until two of their leaders were released. - Did not end attacks on pipelines - For a good period of Post-WWII history, it was Marxism and Lennism that spoke to the conditions of ideology around the world - One of the reasons we‟ve seen a rise in religious terrorism is due to the collapse of communist regimes - Guzman o Marxist-Lennist group inspired by China rather than USSR POLS 364: International Terrorism Class Notes - Since split between China and USSR, there are still two communist parties in each country. - One was pro-Chinese and the other was pro-USSR and still exists this way in many countries. - Canada once had the Communist Party of Canada and Marxist-Lennist Communist Party - In Peru, the shining path was inspired by the policies of Mao - Shining path announced its presence by bombing buildings in the 1980s (public buildings) and by hanging dogs from lampposts o Symbolic of their attitude towards the people in power. Naxalites - Communist group based in India - Engaged in coercive violence - Hijacked/blew up trains - Most recent operation was derailing a train in India in 2008 - Purely guerilla tactics - In June of 2010, they ambushed 27 Indian troops and killed them all, following an attack in April where 86 troops were killed - India‟s Prime Minister Singh two months ago described them as the country‟s greatest internal security threat. In Turkey, there is a communist group with a really long name. - Marxist-Lennist group that wants to replace Turkish government with Marxist-Lennist one - Responsible for a number of bombings in Turkey - Because of a day back in 1973, the Greek government put down a student protest. - They wanted Greece to withdraw from NATO and European community because it was American-dominated. - They want all American bases withdrawn from Greek soil. - To promote these ethics, they relied heavily on kidnapping and/or assassination. - There have been a lot of attacks on Americans, including busloads of Americans and military leaders that have been assassinated. - In 2000, Athens police got a lead on where these guys might be. - They kidnapped and murdered a British attaché. - The British then got involved in hunting down the 17 November group. - Another Marxist-Lennist group Revolutionary Struggle - Group wanted to attack during 2004 summer Olympic Games - Greek government sent 70,000 troops Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia - In early 2000s, they launched a conceited campaign in take over the government - Assassinated government officials - Kidnapped government officials with demands to release their people from prison - May have had 20,000 soldiers at one point. - By 2009, it was estimated that the group was down to 8,000 members - Appears to be well-funded by Venezuela - Operations have included extortion, bombings and kidnappings, as well as guerrilla and conventional military action against Colombian political, military and economic targets - Will be difficult to put down - Also receives support from Cuba Pro-Nazi groups - They exist even within Israel - Recruited Arabs from a number of countries, including Africans and dark-skin Africans from northern Africa - These are the groups that Hitler tended to focus on apart from the Jews - Right-wing groups believed that white race is threatened by influx of people of other races POLS 364: International Terrorism Class Notes Anders Behring Brevick - Attacked Norway‟s government buildings and island on July 22, 2011 - Killed 68 and injured many others - Norwegian police described him a right-wing and Christian fundamentalist - Had a Facebook post that was 1500-page document linked to YouTube video that laid out his ideology o Document was called “2083: A European Declaration of Independence,” in which he attacks various governments for allowing others to spoil European culture In Israel, in 2007, Israeli police said that they had broken up a gang of Neo-Nazis. However, the police accused this group of carrying out attacks on foreigners, gay people and on religious Jews (primarily fundamentalist Jews). They were aged 16-21 and were all Israeli citizens from the USSR. - After they were captured, they admitted to assaulting a number of people in Tel Aviv, who were mostly foreign workers. - Violence was often captured on film. - Some of the films were found when the group was apprehended. Palestinian issue - United States was huge support of Israel. Bin Laden did not take this lightly. - War has greatly heightened conflict between two. - No way exists to erase them – land is at stake! - The territory that Israel sits on and the territory it occupies as a result of the 1967 war is still an issue. - Terrorism has heightened Israel‟s fear for its security. - The ancient Hebrews wthe almost continually at war. - At the turn of the 20 century, Palestine was a small state of the Ottoman Empire - Palestine was a British mandate - The British made promises to the Jews in the region as well through the Balfour Declaration o It promised an eventual Jewish state o The British and the French probably would have said anything to get the Arabs to fight against Turkey during WWI o All promises weren‟t kept either. o Meanwhile, Jewish immigration stepped up after Hitler came to power in 1933 o A lot of German Jews went to Palestine o First protest began in 1931 o There were additional protests - The discovery of the Nazi death camps in 1945 synched the Zionist case o A lot of people believed that the Jews would never be safe until they had their own countries o The Nazis exterminated between 3M to 6M Jews o They did it when little of the world paid attention - Britain was not a governing power in this situation - Most Palestinians fought against the British - The solution of the UN is divide up Palestine into a checkerboard of different ethnicities - In May 1948, David Ben Gurion declared the state of Israel o It was quickly recognized by a number of western countries, and even by the USSR o Recognized within days by the United States o Within a week by Canada o Some countries refused to accept the new state in an attempt to drive Israel from the land they believe is rightfully theirs. - Six-Day War o Based on how long it took to defeat Israel from the civilians o Israel launched a pre-emptive strike o Made it a very short war o Attacks were launched by Syria, Egypt and Jordan. POLS 364: International Terrorism Class Notes o A lot of lands came to be occupied by Israel, such as land owned by Syria, Gaza strip, the Jordanian part of the West Bank and East Jerusalem. o The six-day war was in June of 1967. o Called for the establishment for the just and last of piece, based on Israel withdrawing from all the territory that it had just occupied in return for the right to live in peace within secure and recognized boundaries. o Resolution 242 has very some very strong and unambiguous clauses about Israel withdrawing from its territory  In Section 1A, it draws for the withdrawl of Israeli armed forces.  Most of the terrorism against Israel is now focused on the occupation of those territories. October 13, 2011 Israel CAME TO OCCUPY territory that was previously a part of other countries. The UN said that those territories should be returned. - Before the US and USSR helped bring an end to the conflict. - In 1978, the Egyptian president Anwar Sadat made a historic trip to Israel. - Opened the door peace treaty between Egypt and Israel - Israel withdrew from the Sinai, which had been occupied since 1967 - Became only country to recognize Israel - In 1982, Israel invaded Lebanon because of a series of a cross-border attacks - The Palestine liberation organization of Yassar Arafat had moved into Lebanon and was launching attacks across the border into Israel. - That conflict was ended by agreement. - Israel left troops behind in Lebanon. In 1987, the first intifada took place, which means uprising and/or resistance. - This was a Palestinian uprising - Began in refugee camp and quickly spread through West Bank and Jerusalem - Became bloody conflict Israel and the Palestinians - 11,000 Palestinians by Israeli forces - Occurred as a result of a misunderstanding - In 1993, the Oslo accords were signed. - Norway helped to broker this accord and representatives from Israel and the PLO met in Oslo that eventually led to the Palestinian authority, which was Israel‟s recognition of limited right of self-rule o For their part, the Palestinians recognized Israel and committed itself to acting to promote internal security - A Palestinian authority was created and had limited self-rule throughout the occupied lands. o However, it didn‟t have responsibility for external affairs. o There were limits on the supply of materials in and out of the occupied territories and also of people, especially on the southern border with Egypt. Ariel Sharon took a group of members of his political party to the Noble Sanctuary/Temple Mount. - Motivation was unclear, as area was peaceful, where people were able to worship from all religions. - Wanted Jews to be able to pray on Temple Mount. - The site of many temples, including the Temple of Solomon. - Third holiest site in Islam - Remains a focal point of conflict between Israel and neighbours - Israel turned over administration of the site - People from outside Israel were not allowed to pray  Ariel Sharon wanted to challenge this idea. - Violence broke up all over occupied territories and even within Israel itself  Ariel Sharon became popular enough to become prime minister. In 2003, that group that calls itself “The Quartet,” the US, UN, EU and Russian Federation, announced what they called a roadmap to resolving the conflict between Palestinians and Israel. The objective was POLS 364: International Terrorism Class Notes for there to be two states created: Israel and democratic and viable Palestine living side-by-side in peace and/or security, but only with limited sovereignty. - During 03-04, Sharon put together a disengagement proposal where Israel would withdraw from Gaza and West Bank, with commencement actually occurring in 2005. - Hamas won the elections - Hamas would have to renounce violence and recognize Israel, as well as respect all previous agreements between Palestinians and Israelis. - Hamas refused to do that. - When Hamas refused to do that, the quartet gravely denounced the move, and US cut aid to Hamas - Under the leadership of Hamas and Fatah, Hamas was elected, and would seize control in Gaza by ousting officials from Fatah. - Eventually, you ended up in a situation where Gaza was under the effective control of Hamas and other areas were under the control of Fatah. - Israel refused to accept outcome of election. - Western countries would begin reconsidering their policies as Hamas‟ control was increased. - Rocket attacks into Israel from Gaza increased. - In late 2008, Israel launched an attack on Gaza.  The war that ensued was a very one-sided war led to the death of 1166 or 1417 Palestinians and 13 Israelis. - More than 400,000 were left without running water and 400 homes were destroyed or badly damaged - 80 government buildings were hit - Hundreds of thousands were left homeless. - Israel suffered far less damage and suffered a lot of international criticism from west because it wasn‟t a proportional response? - Geneva Conventions were ratified in Switzerland - By 2009, Netanyahu was the prime minister and he said that Israel would not try Israeli “war criminals.”  believed the notion itself was ridiculous. - Would not hold Israeli settlements on Israeli-held territory - The problem for Israel is Resolution 242 - Resolution 242 said that Israel was to return land from 1967 occurrence. Instead, it settled Jewish people on the land. A lot of Israelis would say that these groups caused a lot of this conflict. PLO/Black September - After the six-day war, a new strategy of terrorist attacks on Israel was formed. - Attacks continued right up until the time of the Oslo accords. - Forte of popular front were airplane hijackings  civilian aircraft. - In mid-1968, some members hijacked an Israeli airliner that was going from Rome to Tel Aviv - A couple of months later, terrorists raided a Boeing at the Athens airport, killing one Israeli and wounding some others. - In 1970, they hijacked four airplanes. - Attacks on embassies, kidnappings, and assassinations were becoming the norm. - Most famous for taking Israeli Olympic team hostage and killing them at the airport in 1972 in Munich. - Also attacked Athens airport in 1973 with tragic outcomes. - PLO denounced Munich massacre, saying it hindered Palestinian efforts to achieve goals because it hindered their reputation. - Oudeh was mastermind of Olympic attacks and died in July of 2010 Abu Nidal group - Some think they were involved in Olympic attack - Split from Fatah in 1974 to carry on more violent struggle - Lots of groups thought Fatah was too moderate - Was responsible for hijackings including a Pan-Am airliner in 1986 - Also responsible for assassinating some PLO officials - He died in 2002 and was found dead in Iraq with multiple gunshot wounds  cause of death is still a mystery POLS 364: International Terrorism Class Notes eIslamic Jihad - Groups make no distinctions between combatants and non-combatants  they were very open about that. - Claimed to have sleeper cells October 18, 2011 Al-Qasssan Martyrs Brigades - Offshoot of Fatah - Suicide attacks by female suicide bombers - What they hoped to do was drive Israel out of West Bank and Gaza by force - Began by targeting Israeli roadblocks and settlers in the West Bank - Shifted their tactics to suicide bombers PFLP - Marxist group that was founded by George Habash in 1967 after six-day war. - The PLO wasn‟t taking strong enough action, apparently. - During the second entifada, beginning in 2000, the popular front escalated its actions against Israel. - Not active as a terrorist network. Leila Khaleo - Wrote a book about Palestinian life - Committed acts of hijacking airplanes - Sisters and five brothers were forced to leave Palestine in 1948 - Their refuge was in Lebanon - Her father joined the revolution in Palestine, leaving his family behind - Defeat of Arabs in six-day war leads to Israel taking over West Bank, Gaza - Stunned the leadership - Mission was to liberate Palestinian prisoners from Israeli jails - With grenade and pistol, hijacking took place at 33,000 feet o Pushed way to cockpit and told captain to change direction and head straight to Tel Aviv o Her handheld grenade was on captain‟s shoulder and he felt he had no choice but to obey o Tailed by two Israeli fighters - Brains wanted her to talk to media and was coached into talking to media o Never enjoyed it o Hated questions o Underwent plastic surgery to change her features so she could hijack another aircraft that was en route to Amsterdam to New York o That was in 1970 but didn‟t work out too well
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