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Political Studies
POLS 368
Martin Gaal

January 8, 2012 (Thursday) January-08-13 11:32 AM The following terms/names/concepts may or may not be discussed: - Ideologues - Destutt de Tracy - Mannheim - Marx - Seliger - Morgenthau - Boulding - Kissinger - Hoffmann - Alexis de Tocqueville - Monroe - Roosevelt - Stoessiner - Cecil Crabb, Jr. Ideologues - Strongly influenced by the ideology of science. - The phrase was "coined" in the 19th century. - Wanted to create new discipline with scientific development and sensations. - He thought you could understand how people think and work your way to truths in a systematic way. - His idea was to create a science of ideas, which he called 'ideology.' - For truth, you should rely more on sensetory experience than demanded by royalty and the Catholic church. - Philosophy was very anti-authoritarian. - You had to observe the truth by following scientific techniques. ○ Made him very unpopular with nobility and the church. - A student named Napoleon began with the School of Ideologues. ○ Napoleon believed in this philosophy. ○ The ideologues supported Napoleon's coups and Napoleon supported them… he even built schools for the ideologues. - Ideology meant "discovering the truth." Marx - Marxism was pioneered by Germans. - According to Marx, how you live, you economic position, what is done with you labour and those who are in power in that particular era is what determines how you think. - The person with false consciousness are unaware that they know they have a false consciousness. - Ideology is an unwitting distortion. ○ What you think has to be rooted in something… you don't sit and make things up. ○ Your thinking has something to do with socioeconomic relationships. Mannheim - Famous sociologist Karl Mannheim argued a bit differently. - He argues that the distortion of reality may be quite conscious, and not unwitting. ○ It may be designed to perpetuate the rule of the particular group (perhaps the bourgeoisie… slave owners… or maybe even some smaller group in a ○ the bourgeoisie… slave owners… or maybe even some smaller group in a society). ○ A bunch of ideas, arguments and justifications are designed to perpetuate my interests and my rule. Martin Seliger - A lot of people use the term "ideology" in a "we," "they," "cops and robbers" sense. ○ They have an ideology, while we have cherished values. ○ They have dogmas while we have leaders. ○ They are fanatics while we are true to our ideologies. ○ Everyone has ideologies… including fascists and philosophers. - Being an American, he is pr
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