New Directions: Trudeau and Mulroney?
February-06-13 9:31 AM
Détente: time of conflict between Soviet Union and U.S.
- Ronald Reagan helped increase tensions in the Cold War with his nonsensical
rhetoric and his decision to build up the military.
- Reagan and Trudeau do not like each other that much… if at all.
○ Trudeau, if you hate him… or actually like him, was a snob… and he
thought of himself as brilliant.
○ Trudeau did not think Reagan was "brilliant."
- At this time, the U.S. was steadily becoming more right-wing while Canada was
getting closer to Soviet-linked groups, including Fidel Castro.
○ Trudeau also publicly rebuked the U.S. in the United Nations for invading
Grenada (a Commonwealth country).
- When Trudeau finally (actually) retires in 1984, foreign policy in Canada takes a
○ John Turner replaces him, and had the unfortunate task of going against
Mulroney, who crushes him…
Mulroney Comes to Office
- Mulroney eventually got rid of the National Energy Program.
○ Alberta is upset about it.
○ The U.S. hated it because it was protectionist.
○ Ontario enjoyed it.
- Mulroney eventually decides to rebuild the military and attempts to rescue
relations with the U.S.
○ He develops a personally-good relationship with Reagan… enough to sing
○ Nobody gave a damn about free trade in the U.S. while free trade was
rather unpopular with Canadians.
This seemed to favour Americans.
○ The 1988 election was largely a free trade election… and the Progressive
Conservatives win a false majority (about 40%).
In Canada, Conservatives had been traditionally protectionist.
- Before Trudeau retired in 1984, he appointed a royal commission (Macdonald
commission) led by former Liberal cabinet minister Donald Stovel Macdonald
that suggested free trade.
○ In 1988, Mulroney was able to use this against the Liberals.
- We were becoming more and more integrated with the United States, despite
efforts not to.
○ There is a recognition that economic integration can lead to benefits for
○ The Auto Pact: one of the first quasi free trade agreements with the U.S.
In 1965, it was a free trade agreement involving Canadian cars.
□ As a result, there are no Canadian automakers.
□ Because of eco