SOC 233 November 14, 2011
Feminist Theory Con’t…
Hochschild – Emotional Labour
Emotional Labour: The management of feeling to create a publicly observable facial and bodily display.
Workers are expected to display certain emotions as part of their job.
Half of women have a job that entails emotional labour.
Women are experiencing emotional labour in non-work settings as well.
1. Face-to-face interaction
2. Production of emotional state in another person.
3. Employer can exercise control over emotional activities.
Note – Effort to manage feelings/emotions results in owning emotions.
Emotions become a commodity in capitalist economy.
Society is “buying” people’s emotions through the work they are doing.
Feelings become part of a work description.
Hochschild – The Time Bond & The Second Shift
Goffman had greatest influence on her ideas.
Theories to this point downplay the role of emotion.
Impression management and emotional labour are both gendered.
Note – Hochschild states that the front stage/backstage isn’t just surface impressions, but deep
Impression and emotional management.
eg) Being sad at a funeral, and happy at a wedding.
Time Bind - When work becomes home, and home becomes work.
Marx argues that the workplace is alienating, and home is a haven.
Hochschild argues that home is alienating, and the workplace is a haven.
eg) Laundry and dishes piling up; ill children.
Time Bind: We work so many hours that we are not able to get what we need to get done at home,
We have a struggle in capitalist economy, where we do not have enough time both in the
economic and domestic sphere.
People are reluctant to take advantages of parental leave, etc. because they are afraid of the
eg) Loss of job, lack of promotion.
We have policies which should alleviate these, but people are still reluctant. Note – Women and men often hire someone to do domestic duties.
Leads to the creation of “potential self.”
ie) If I had more time, this is all that I would be able to accomplish. Because I do not have the
time, I will have to get someone else to do it.
Women who display non-trophy pictures at work:
Women’s roles are not trophy-type.
Not “acceptable” for women to promote family life.
Men who display trophy pictures at work:
Are considered good, family men.
Are seen in a positive light through the promotion of family life.
The Second Shift : The domestic, unpaid shift.
AKA – Double ghetto.
eg) Washing floors, doing laundry, bathing children, etc.
Women engage in more second shift activities.
Stalled Revolution: Women are moving into paid labour force, but still having to perform domestic