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Lecture

ANTH101 March 16 Lecture.docx

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTH 100
Professor
Keriann Mc Googan
Semester
Winter

Description
Holocene Hunter­Gatherer ­ about 10 kya ­ warming ­ glacial recession caused biotic zones to move north – areas covered by ice became  grasslands, tundras, and forested areas ­ moose and deer replaced caribou and musk ox who could live in the previously  icy environment Extinction of Pleistocene Megafauna ­ giant game and predators began to disappear Shifting Diet and Culture ­ increase in diversity of food because food source (megafauna) no longer available   ▯began to eat fish, shellfish, birds, rodents, and different types of plants ­ expanding toolkit  ▯more wood available for tools, first wood canoe Continuum of Hunter­Gatherer Lifestyles ­ Forager  ▯small groups (20­50), move frequently, limited material goods, few  shelters, no storage ­ Collector  ▯larger groups (100s), more sedentary, middens, storage, consistent and  stable food source Early Epipaleolithic: Kebaaran West Asia ­ ~24­12 ya ­ Ohalo II  ▯23 kya, comprised of several huts, some grass bedding, hearths, tools,  collection of 90000+ plant remains (middens of plant remains) Transhumance: Seasonal movement ­ summer: foraging (lived in higher pastures)  ▯hunt and gather nuts ­ fall to springtime: collector (lived in lower pastures)  ▯harvest seeds of wild  grasses/cereals Late Epipaleolithic: Natufian, 12­9 kya ­ sedentary  ▯more permanent living quarters ­ wild grains, legumes  ▯higher into forested zones  ▯collector hunter­gatherers ­ shifting into agriculture and domestication ­ manipulating landscape to enhance productivity  ­ food storage, food processing ­ social ranking  ▯competing over access to favoured resources/areas Why Change? ­ several hypotheses o Oasis o Sedentary o Readiness o Dump heap o Coevolution o Demographic o Marginal habitat o Sedentism and population growth Oasis Hypothesis ­ V. Gordon Childe ­ Certain areas became drier at end of Pleistocene, so plant life and important  resources for humans were concentrated in limited areas where water was  available ­ People congregated near “oases”  ­ People who were previously very mobile now had no reason to migrate out of  these areas, so they became more sedentary Sedentary Hypothesis ­ Carl Sauer ­ Nomadic people (foraging lifestyle) did not suddenly give up their practices of  migration, and they continues to forage ­ The collectors that were already sedentary  ▯people living in areas with naturally  abundant food, experiment with methods of increasing their abundance ­ In conjugation with oasis  ▯sedentary life ultimately lead people to the lifestyle  where they could experiment, leading to domestication Readiness Hypothesis ­ Robert Braidwood ­ Not linked to climate changes  ▯people domesticated as they gained knowledge  about plants/animals around them ­ People became intellectually and culturally “ready” to domesticate Dump Heap Hypothesis ­ Edgar Anderson ­ Certain wi
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