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Lecture 3

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Classical Studies
CLAS 201
Nicholas Maes

CLAS 201 Lecture 3 NotesReviewPelasgian the population that was in Greece Minoans based on people in Crete have more cultural interactions with Pelasgian Helladic branch of the IndoEuropeans somewhere from central Europe become the Mycenaean the first real group of GreeksIndoEuropean invade the Pelasgian and became fusedCultural influence from Minoan injected into this Helladic IndoEuropean cultureGenetically IndoEuropean features dominated Typical ancient Greek got his image from IndoEuropeanLinguistically slanted to the IndoEuropean languageReligiously there was fusion of patriarchal Olympianism with the chthonic fertility goddess based religionAfter 400 years all this became the Mycenaean populationThemes from Homers PassagesAncient Greek does not have a kind of text that told them how to conduct themselves to be a part of civilization what to do and what not to do oTo some extent they do have some form of text of a proper way of conducting themselves in the world and that was present in HomerHomer is influential in so many ways in the way he described the gods and goddessesThe Greeks believed there was a multitude of gods polytheism and believed that they were exactly like themselves except they had immortality and a great deal of powerGreeks say justice is a hard quantity to discover because the gods are all too humanZeus and Hera PassageThetis approaches Zeus and gets him to help the Trojan win so Agamemnon will want Achilles backHera catches wind of this and knows exactly what is happening but she wants the Greek to win because Paris refused to give her the golden appleHera says that Argos Sparta and Mycenae are dearest to her heart but she is willing to sacrifice them so long as the Greek winoShe can be seen as callousoShe wants to be championed by Zeus rather than being slighted by seeing the other side winoThis is typical of how the gods actually govern themselvesoAchilles is seen as selfish because the gods are the sameoThe notion is one looks after themselves and their own before you consider feeling of people that lie outside of your immediate interestGreeks were competitive and quarrelsome because the gods werethis model of the gods are present in IliadHektor and Andromache PassageThe Trojans are fighting the Greeks now that Achilles is off the battlefieldThey are currently losing and Hektor has an feeling that he will die in battle so he wants to return to see his wife AndromacheHe is about to return but he spots her with his son AstyanaxHector claims he has to go out back to the battlefield because he needs to protect the cityoThis is quite different from Achilles he is aware of his public dutiesHis primary responsibility is to his family and as much as he may not want it he might die and abandon his familyIlion was another name for TroyThere is many irony in this passageoFirst Hector in order to keep his family safe must dress in armor and be a menace to men When he faces his family in the guise of the warrior they are scared so he must strip his essential identity What scares the family is what makes it possibleYour own safety comes at someone expense no one wins without someone losingThere was no way for everyone to winoThe biggest paradox is that although Hector prays that his son will grow up and be strong when Troy falls Odysseus kills Astyanax by throwing him against a wallThe Greek believed you had no control over your own futureThey were realistic and in a sense pessimistic as they saw the glass as half emptyAchilles to Embassy PassageWith the Greeks losing to the TrojanAgamemnon is trying to bring Achilles back by making a his friends try to bribe and entice him back to fight including Odysseus AjaxAchilles refuses to return to the warAchaian Achaean were another name for the GreekAchilles is advocating life above everything he realizes that it is foolish to risk his life to have people talk about him when he dies oHe should be trying to live life to the fullestoHis life is worth more than anything he can obtainThe Greek were always competitive and tried not to waste timeconstantly pushing themselves because they did not believe in a paradise to comeoThis was reflected in their writing poetry art drama etcoThe present life here and now should be enjoyed the most
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