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ENGL210F- Module 4 Word Choice, Conciseness, Tone.doc

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Juvenile Delinquency

Ch. 3 and 4 Word Choice, Conciseness, and Tone Chapter 3 • Plain style or plain language: a style of writing that places value on simplicity, directness, and clarity • Voice: a term that describes a verb`s ability to show whether the subject of a sentence acts or is acted upon • Phrased verb: a verb that combines with one or more prepositions to deliver its meaning • Pronouns: words that replace or refer to nouns • Ambiguity: a term that describes an obscure or inexact meaning • Jargon: a term that describes (1) the specialized terminology of a technical field or (2) outdated, unnecessary words used in a business context • Buzzwords: fashionable, technical, or computer jargon • Clichés: Overused tired expressions that have lost their ability to communicate effectively • Slang: coined words or existing words that are informal and have meanings specifics to practical groups of localities • Acronym: a pronounceable work formed from the initial letters of other words (NATO) • Emoticon: a symbol consisting of a sequence of keystrokes that produce a sideways image of a face conveying any one of a range of emotions ( ;) , :) , etc) • Concrete nouns: things knowable through the senses - Ex. computer, annual reports, resumé • Abstract nouns: things not knowable through the senses - Integrity, loyalty, justice • Idiom: a word or phrase that has a meaning different from its liberal meaning • Analogy: an explanation of the unfamiliar in terms of the familiar • Verbs: words that describe actions, occurrences, or states of being • Nouns: words that name people, places, things and abstract concepts • Noun conversions or nominalizations: verbs that have been converted into nouns with the addition of –ment or –tion endings • Redundancies: unplanned repetitions • Active voice: a writing style in which the grammatical subject of a sentence performs the action - Edit and double-space the script of the speech. • Passive voice: a writing style in which the grammatical subject of a sentence is acted upon - Ex. The script of the speech should be edited and double spaced. • Prepositional phrase: a phrase beginning with a preposition and function as a modifier • Expletive construction: a phrase such as there is / are or it is / was at the beginning of a clause, delaying the introduction of the subject (pg. 71 for ex) • Tone: the implied attitude of the author to the reader, as reflected by word choice • Denotation: a word’s literal or dictionary definition • Connotation: a word’s implied or associative meaning, often coloured by emotion • Formality: the level of writing; whether the writer is using the appropriate register based on an observance of the rules and conventions of writing • Personal style: a style of writing that seems warm and friendly based on its use of first- and-second person pronouns • Impersonal style: a style of writing that seems objective and detached based on its use of third-person pronouns • Reader benefits: the benefits or advantages a reader can gain by complying with the action the writer endorses • You-attitude: a writing style that focuses on the reader rather than the writer • We-attitude: a writing style that focuses on the shared goals and values of the writer and reader(s) • Salutation: a greeting at the beginning of a letter: “Dear Ms.Gill” Chapter 4 • Phrase: a group of words containing either a subject or verb, which cannot stand on its own as a complete sentence • Clause: a group of related words containing a subject and a complete verb, when it
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