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A Christian Europe.docx

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HIST 110
Sebastian Siebel- Achenbach

HIST 110 A Christian Europe Wed. Oct 24 Charlemagne (768-814)  Through Rome, recognized administration key as prolongation to empire  Created buearcacy  Needed educated individuals problem in 8 century since schools dissolved, only ones able to read/write were workers of catholic church: Clerks  Tried to get schools  Transcribed texts manually by hand o Know works of antiquity that survived o Used dried calf skin instead of paper “velum” o Formed basis of classical education: grew in wisdom when studied  Count: earned on basis of qualification, not hereditary, emerged feudal structure: laid down basis for secular society, held together by military force + beaucracy under laws/restraints  Relationship to church o Christmas day 800: Charlemagne crowned emperor by pope, symbolic, suggested power derived from papacy, catholic church made co-equal with secular authority  Didn’t force Frankish rule on non franks  Wanted all subjects to be roman catholics; adopted Latin form of Christianity, saw it as important to maintaining order and longevity , wanted common morality, glue people together  2 pillars: secular power based on warriors, kings, nobles and exercised control by military means, sacared/spiritual until the Renaissance  Franks Empire didn’t last much longer after Charlemagne o Only surviving son Louis the Pious: considered too religious by aristocrats, didn’t expand empire, 3 sons divided empire into 3 parts  Recurring problem experienced by Louis: invaders  786-1000 Western Europe invaded by 3 group who constantly raided trading flows and showed weaknesses of existing states: tribes from central Asia, skilled quick warriors  Battle of Lechfeld (955)  Islamic forces who came from Spain & North Africa also raided, Sarasdins caused problems th  The Norseman (Vikings): Germanic tribes, went on raids from 8 century +, were overpopulated, Norse society evolving into states instead of tribes with clans (strong leaders wanting to unify tribes into states), to garner prestige/get booty which would get status on society they went on raids, first documented raid in 786, raid against Irish town/monastery, raiders succeeded, no longer raiding satisfied: wanted to create settlements, targeted England in 865 (easy target, across North Sea, wealthy land), King Alfred survived Caroline Minuscule • Script used in western world Missi Dominici – court emissaries • Diplomas and capitularies King Alfred (870 – 899)  Built navy from scratch, reformed army to be more mobile  Managed to get more English territory  Ensured all people besides Saxsens were treated equally: got more allies Norse were plague on European society HIST 110 A Christian Europe Wed. Oct 24 Raiding stopped in 1000 Contributed to destabilization to Treaty of Verdun (843) Lothair (840-855) Ludwig the German (840-876)  Becomes Germany Charles the Bald (840-877)  Becomes France Western Europe assaulted from various directions, empire inside crumbled, local leaders (counts/dukes), take over portions of authority, Knights became basis of power Dukes/courts became more important than successors to Charlemagne Authority rests on not kings, but counts/dukes 11 century, kings reestablish themselves as political players SOCIETY  2 classes: those with means, and those that don’t  Those with wealth education and those with not  On secular side, 5% constituted elites in society: land owners, aristocrats  95% worked the land, classified as serfs  Considered aristocrats cause possessed land  95% lived in hovels not owned by them, part of village culture, relied on others to help incase of raids, people “just for by” serfs obligated to work lord’s land “demesne” landlord’s estate, forced to give % (up to 30% produced on own land) income to lord in exchange for using grain mill/winepress/bakery by the lord, lords desired more because they had to live by certain code 
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