HIST110 Lecture Notes - Counter-Reformation, Spiritual Exercises Of Ignatius Of Loyola, Moravian Church

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reformation: lowly monk from backwater Germany able to create something split Church
o sow seeds for conflict last 200 years, wanted only reform abuses of Church
o successful challenging authority, monopoly of church = open up various Christian denomination
WHY? Before able to repress those who oppose authority
1. Printing press
i. disseminating the message w/o printing unlikely Lutheran revolution unable to go how far it
actually went, scholars within months able
ii. contagious power printing press able to transcend to anyone who was literate
2. Rise of Christian Humanism /Humanism in general
i. intellectual movement held work antiquity in highest esteem interested in Christian renewal
ii. felt religion no longer inspiring b/c institutionalized - Jesus‟ message being lost
iii. Northern Humanist want education to inspire/rekindle faith had more practical application,
assessed texts, analysed work in contrast with contemporary accounts
iv. discrepancy b/w original text and Church professed (interpretation) = intellectual foundation of
church suspect, questionable
v. through process of inquiry able to emerge, Lutheran recognize limitations of work he work
working with, intellectuals supportive of reformation
3. Personality
i. if Lutheran weak willed, taken orders would never know about him
ii. he was stubborn, more than self-righteous, dogmatic that what he believed in was word of god,
his reading of scripture was right man utterly convinced
iii. when confronted by central message Ech(sp?) (Scholar) said based on “holy spirit guided on
holy interpretation” he would have right interpretation soon other man would say same who
came up with interpretations, what makes them different?
a. could claim the same = not bow down, gave answers to questions, convinced God
wished (others who are just as strong willed)
4. Politics i. central Europe unique b/c so fragmented
ii. Holy Roman Empire fractured into different areas- different loyalty to emperors title w/o real
authority meant that central authority could not supress a hieratical movement
iii. had Luther been in Spain and France speculating that not be same, undeniable that Luther
would have been supressed along with supporters
iv. Germany diffused, rivalries could be used as levers, could be used by political powers for
personal use,
v. number princes (electors) who found in interest to use Luther to ensure centralized authority
would not become too powerful last thing Saxony wanted powerful emperor b/c mean came at
their expense Luther more of a pawn and effectively used
5. Not easy target to stop, split quickly
i. 1520s when Lutheranism began, other reformers claimed slight doctrinal difference, people not
reformers wanted to push terms in different way Calvin
=Lutherans spread, gravitated in Germanic world, b/c many resentful b/c of Historic wrongs
much money collected in cities was being shovelled to faraway places for their own benefit, not only tax
revenues but many offices being held by non-German background, bishops given benefits
offices but did not reside in dynasty, every time questioned say important running Church as whole not in
England or German
Calvin, Purity and Strife
Peace of Augsburg (1555) cuius region eius religio „his the region, his the religion
Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis (1559)
Jean Calvin (1509-1564)
Not religiously inclined
Came from clerical background but wanted to study law University Orlean(sp?) led him to law degree
When learned of Lutheranism inspired to reform faith, being a protestant in France dangerous undertaking
Kings saw themselves as defenders of the faith, Church seen as eldest daughter of Church, in terms to unify
state Kings made sure everyone Catholic those not persecuted, burned as heretic = got out of France left for
Switzerland came across works of protestants
Interested in reforming, developing Church, understood doctrinal differences in other reformers
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1536 developed Institutes of the Christian Religion- way to rationalize a different type of Christian community
all aspects life controlled by Christian thoughts and actions, not separation between sacred and secular
spiritual and temporal to become real Christian every facet be influence by Christian thought
Complicated reasons, meanders to Geneva, implored by locals, voted to become protestants, stay there to
become elder protestant community though would be wonderful leader, eventually hand arm twisted 20-25
years transformed Geneva to first radical protestant city Radical b/c doctrinally (what believed and institution -
how learned
All predestination no matter what we do, God already determines where we are going - Heaven and Hell, only
by faith alone = DIFF OF CALVIN = presedestant determined but only select were going to heaven = elites so
everyone subordinate to them, what if not chosen? As long as someone believes it was okay, trust in god‟s
judgment 99% going to hell, one just accepted didn‟t know who were elite but actions strongly suggested
where you were going Calvin thought we was select. Just because wealthy did not mean going to heaven
Attractive b/c future already destined towards them, no matter what they did go into that direction
Institution very stern, various groups men made decisions Pastors (select people could preach,
Doctors/Scholars (provide info to pastors properly preach, Deacons (to offer hospitals, orphanages to lead right
direction) Elders (men certain age who had power to enforce discipline meet with pastors (consistory) there
moral difficulties and differences hatched out
Geneva became stifled place certain standards, very doctrine Christian community inspired other people
live precisely in that way
Protestant sect, letarist, holy word created by God, understand literally
Considered dangerous, sadistic b/c literal sense believed to be genuine Christian had to baptized when adult
b/c children no conscience of what doing, no free will through baptism could enter Christian faith
Problem because had to be rebatized sin to be baptized more than once
If in adulthood could not be genuine Christian, if teenage not Christian, what if you died?
Automatically go to hell baptism indispensable so accepted by all others as essential to Christian
faith, widely considered anti-Christian
Questioned secular authority, state no right to tax them, demand oaths of elligance, military orders, sate was
creation, no bearing in scripture therefore didn‟t exist – challenge secular authority, weaken it impearls for
society to set norms and behaviours taking literalist approach undermined tradition dangerous =
persecuted, drowned, burned
Despite persecution, established isolated small communities, able to attract:
Moravian Brethren
Menno Simons (1496-1561) Mennonites/Puritans Mennonites evolve into Puritans
English were catholic, but not as devoted
Since 14th century outward sign being dissatisfied with Catholicism = signs = Babylonian captivity (under French
crown) Perceived corruption of church (sale of indulgences, offices of church sold to individuals neither piest or
English = money flowed outside, no English pope since 11th century= influence small)
Henry VIII (1509-1547)
Marries wife of older brother Catherine of Aragon (aunt of emperor Charles 5th) only objective for her to
provide male heir b/c scared of War of Roses (30 years to resolve) all wanted her have male heir had 6
children, only one survived Mary
Starts becoming desperate early 1530s sees opportunity using Lutheran, Protestant use lever get what he
wants, if Pope doesn‟t annul marriage with Aragon threats to annul Church prob married to aunt of Pope, put
obstacles in way, after 3 years gets tired of going through papers, has affair with Anne Boleyn, convinced it is a
male in order to make legitimate needs quickly marry her = useful weapon = Protestantism not Lutheran but he
himself to be head so temporal also sacred
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