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Calvin, Purity, Strife.docx

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HIST 110
Sebastian Siebel- Achenbach

Review  reformation: lowly monk from backwater Germany able to create something split Church o sow seeds for conflict last 200 years, wanted only reform abuses of Church o successful challenging authority, monopoly of church = open up various Christian denomination  WHY? Before able to repress those who oppose authority 1. Printing press i. disseminating the message w/o printing unlikely Lutheran revolution unable to go how far it actually went, scholars within months able ii. contagious – power printing press able to transcend to anyone who was literate 2. Rise of Christian Humanism /Humanism in general i. intellectual movement held work antiquity in highest esteem – interested in Christian renewal ii. felt religion no longer inspiring b/c institutionalized - Jesus‟ message being lost iii. Northern Humanist want education to inspire/rekindle faith – had more practical application, assessed texts, analysed work in contrast with contemporary accounts iv. discrepancy b/w original text and Church professed (interpretation) = intellectual foundation of church suspect, questionable v. through process of inquiry able to emerge, Lutheran recognize limitations of work he work working with, intellectuals supportive of reformation 3. Personality i. if Lutheran weak willed, taken orders would never know about him ii. he was stubborn, more than self-righteous, dogmatic that what he believed in was word of god, his reading of scripture was right –man utterly convinced iii. when confronted by central message – Ech(sp?) (Scholar) said based on “holy spirit guided on holy interpretation” – he would have right interpretation  soon other man would say same who came up with interpretations, what makes them different? a. could claim the same = not bow down, gave answers to questions, convinced God wished (others who are just as strong willed) 4. Politics i. central Europe unique b/c so fragmented ii. Holy Roman Empire fractured into different areas- different loyalty to emperors – title w/o real authority – meant that central authority could not supress a hieratical movement iii. had Luther been in Spain and France speculating that not be same, undeniable that Luther would have been supressed along with supporters iv. Germany diffused, rivalries could be used as levers, could be used by political powers for personal use, v. number princes (electors) who found in interest to use Luther to ensure centralized authority would not become too powerful – last thing Saxony wanted powerful emperor b/c mean came at their expense  Luther more of a pawn and effectively used Protestantism 5. Not easy target to stop, split quickly i. 1520s when Lutheranism began, other reformers claimed slight doctrinal difference, people not reformers wanted to push terms in different way – Calvin =Lutherans spread, gravitated in Germanic world, b/c many resentful b/c of Historic wrongs  much money collected in cities was being shovelled to faraway places for their own benefit, not only tax revenues but many offices being held by non-German background, bishops given benefits  offices but did not reside in dynasty, every time questioned say important running Church as whole – not in England or German Calvin, Purity and Strife • Peace of Augsburg (1555) – „cuius region eius religio‟ – „his the region, his the religion‟ • Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis (1559) • Jean Calvin (1509-1564) – Not religiously inclined – Came from clerical background but wanted to study law  University Orlean(sp?) led him to law degree – When learned of Lutheranism inspired to reform faith, being a protestant in France dangerous undertaking – Kings saw themselves as defenders of the faith, Church seen as eldest daughter of Church, in terms to unify state Kings made sure everyone Catholic – those not persecuted, burned as heretic = got out of France left for Switzerland came across works of protestants – Interested in reforming, developing Church, understood doctrinal differences in other reformers – 1536 developed Institutes of the Christian Religion- way to rationalize a different type of Christian community – all aspects life controlled by Christian thoughts and actions, not separation between sacred and secular – spiritual and temporal – to become real Christian every facet be influence by Christian thought – Complicated reasons, meanders to Geneva, implored by locals, voted to become protestants, stay there to become elder protestant community – though would be wonderful leader, eventually hand arm twisted 20-25 years transformed Geneva to first radical protestant city Radical b/c doctrinally (what believed and institution - how learned – All predestination no matter what we do, God already determines where we are going - Heaven and Hell, only by faith alone = DIFF OF CALVIN = presedestant determined but only select were going to heaven = elites so everyone subordinate to them, what if not chosen? As long as someone believes it was okay, trust in god‟s judgment – 99% going to hell, one just accepted – didn‟t know who were elite but actions strongly suggested where you were going – Calvin thought we was select. Just because wealthy did not mean going to heaven • Attractive b/c future already destined towards them, no matter what they did go into that direction – Institution – very stern, various groups men made decisions – Pastors (select people could preach, Doctors/Scholars (provide info to pastors properly preach, Deacons (to offer hospitals, orphanages to lead right direction) Elders (men certain age who had power to enforce discipline – meet with pastors (consistory) there moral difficulties and differences hatched out – Geneva became stifled place – certain standards, very doctrine Christian community – inspired other people live precisely in that way • Anabaptists – Protestant sect, letarist, holy word created by God, understand literally – Considered dangerous, sadistic b/c literal sense – believed to be genuine Christian had to baptized when adult b/c children no conscience of what doing, no free will – through baptism could enter Christian faith • Problem because had to be rebatized – sin to be baptized more than once • If in adulthood could not be genuine Christian, if teenage not Christian, what if you died? Automatically go to hell – baptism indispensable so accepted by all others as essential to Christian faith, widely considered anti-Christian – Questioned secular authority, state no right to tax them, demand oaths of elligance, military orders, sate was creation, no bearing in scripture therefore didn‟t exist – challenge secular authority, weaken it impearls for society to set norms and behaviours – taking literalist approach undermined tradition – dangerous = persecuted, drowned, burned – Despite persecution, established isolated small communities, able to attract: • Moravian Brethren • Menno Simons (1496-1561) – Mennonites/Puritans – Mennonites evolve into Puritans • English were catholic, but not as devoted – Since 14 century outward sign being dissatisfied with Catholicism = signs = Babylonian captivity (under French crown) Perceived corruption of church (sale of indulgences, offices of church sold to individuals neither piest or English = money flowed outside, no English pope since 11 century= influence small) • Henry VIII (1509-1547) th – Marries wife of older brother – Catherine of Aragon (aunt of emperor Charles 5 ) – only objective for her to provide male heir b/c scared of War of Roses (30 years to resolve) all wanted her have male heir – had 6 children, only one survived – Mary – Starts becoming desperate early 1530s sees opportunity using Lutheran, Protestant use lever get what he wants, if Pope doesn‟t annul marriage with Aragon threats to annul Church – prob married to aunt of Pope, put obstacles in way, after 3 years gets tired of going through papers, has affair with Anne Boleyn, convinced it is a male in order to make legitimate needs quickly marry her = useful weapon =
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