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HIST 110
David Schweitzer

Day 2 A History of the Western World I Lecture 4: Greek Civilization Herodotus 484-425 BCE: wrote a history of recent events “sets forth the results of his research, with the aim of preserving the remembrance of what men have done, and of preventing the great and wonderful deeds of Greeks and Barbarians from losing their glory” Acropolis of Athens & the Parthenon: - Many cities were built upon mountain strongholds. Athens, first settled in the Neolithic Age, was a fortified palace during the bronze age. th 12 Century B.C.E: - Mycenaean civilization had vanished - At Athens, the citadels were destroyed, economy and social organization severally affected. - Settlements shrank in size and moved inland away from coastlines - Trade and communication declined - Use of writing declined to the extent that knowledge of Linear B disappeared - World in stasis, isolated from civilizations emerging in Near East Humans and Gods: - The hardships of daily life made Greeks suspicious of their gods, they came to rely on the power of individual human beings rather than divine intervention on human affairs - *excessive pride in one own’s accomplishments could be dangerous, because such Hubris attracted the adverse attention of the gods - “gods” favored those who showed initiative and daring Homer and the Heroic Tradition: - By 1000 BCE, the chaotic conditions that contributed to isolation were removed due to periods of peace - standard of living improved, artisans developed their crafts, increased contact between settlements fostered trade - Homer is most famous (Iliad & Odyssey) preserves longstanding traditions (*encyclopedia’s of Lore set at end of Bronze*) - Around in the *Age of Heroes* o Agamemnon ruled in Mycenae and conquered Troy (Paris Achilles Hector Helen Odysseus) th 9 Century B.C.E - Greeks adopted Phoenician Alphabet, replaced the long dis-used Linear B of Mycenaeans. The Greeks improved this alphabet - Seafaring is revived in Greece due to Phoenician influence - After the devastation of the late Bronze Age, Greek ships only travelled along shore and for short distances. Traders did not travel. - Greeks copied Phoenician designs for merchant vessels - Commercial activity increased
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