Jan. 10 Lecture-History 111
Military warfare and state building
Europeans perfected the art of killing each other especially in the 14th,15th and 16th century.
Why the west?
Because Europeans spent a lot of time think about killing eachother
What was war like in the Middle Ages?
Small wars with bread campaigns l. Random captives ect. JooOver time this change in 14&15 c war of
roses and 100 years war e tween England and France. Army's have to be in field longer period of time
and be away from home. In 16c only had 10 years withou war in Europe. In 17th obliga 3 .
Spain always had war
Poland and Russia 5 outta 6 years
If you have a big army for a long time you must be sure you have good, corrdinations, some care of
wounded , money to pay soldiers or they could dessert, weapons.
Need dependable money!
Breakdown of traditional social chance of late medieval society
Reasons for chance
1: population growth
Population growth= inflation things become more expensive because of popular demand.
Population becomes for mobile
Soldiers who fight in army are people who need war.
2: territorial princes and rulers
3: gradual disappearance of great feudal landlords
4: easier to start wars- more people to recruit, more hungry people, bigger population base to build
army, easier to take out a loan.
5: larger armies- even in winter time. Not just citizens anymore, take people from marginal areas,
criminals ect. A Swedish king with only 12% of army actually Swedish (took from margins)
6: suffering of the peasants
Decline of the mounted horseman
To arm a night and horse costs as much as a small farm.
A knight charging at you in open field is unstoppable. Except "pointy sticks" pikeman. Must be organized
and it requires lots of training.
Similar effects are firearms. Change war significantly. Slow change though. Changes nature o war war,
distant contact, different wounds, no more need for pikeman.
1 Anyone can use it. A bit of training but ANYONE can do it. Noble privilege and authority taken away.
Cannons, have to build fortifications to protect against cannons.
Trace itallienne, fort to protect from cannons. cost lots of money to make. Have to do it or castle will e
navies, larger ships, Carrie lots of guns.
Sixteenth century trend, large states gobble up small states.
Who can afford to do this?
Bigger centralized states
- Habsburg Spain
Economical strong states
Can manage debt, give credit, ect.
Dutch beat English
Requires Dramatic increase in taxation!
To be successful for increase in tax
- force taxes
- buraceocies, people to go out and find how much people should be taxed
- large population to tax
Courts and governments
- importance of appearing in royal court
Have to be near at all times, physical peoxmity to him matters, but the clothes, rent room in Versailles,
change him, play cards all night "clean toilet"
How did Luis absolutism work.
Absolutism monarchy, your word is law. You have absolute power. Effiency. Wanted things done, had to
have absolute monarchy.
Does it by negotiation, and discussion, goal he has, aspiration never a reality.
Forging the centralized state.
2 -Royal courts expanded
-Religion and the state
Royal justice highe