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Lecture 10

HIST111 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Stevedore, Aristocracy, Bourgeoisie

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Troy Osborne

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The class system was most prevalent in Britain, but was also present in continental
Europe. Class is never determined by income, but rather by the type of work done.
urbanization revealed different levels of poverty, causing the social question!to
be raised
in 1859, 5% of people owned 33% of national income
top 20% of the nation owned 50-60% of national income—>consisted mostly of a
highly educated and new growing class
1. Aristocracy
2. Middle Classes - White collar workers or “bourgeoisie
highly educated
children go to university
initially factory workers, mine owners, professionals (doctors), bankers,
merchants, wealthy farmers
upper middle class
most successful, involved in large-scale commerce
attempt to emulate aristocracy (beachfront houses, mowing the lawn,
hiring servants, using coaches to showcase status)
wealthiest ones want offspring to go to aristocracy for social mobility
middle middle class: solid and comfortable
lower middle class: independent trade owners, small shop owners
3. Working Classes
highly skilled
• semi-skilled
• unskilled
Introduction of new industry upset the delicate class system; the middle class diversified
demand appeared for industrialists with special knowledge (ie. engineers, skill
workers) —> income became that of middle class
managerial job became important for their skills, i.e. efficiency despite owning no
shop owners made money but thought themselves differently
in the Balkans, status was shown via soft clean hands and nicely cut nails
nurses, elementary teachers, dentists went from being miserably paid to being
considered professionals —> middle class
Values of Class developed the following trends:
• thrifting
theoretically favoured hard work, attributing poverty to moral failure
honesty valued as business relies on your word
self control; began to address vices like drunkennes, gambling, and sexual purity
self-made man (earning money individually)
individualist (indesire to rely on others
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