HLTH102 Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Canadian Human Rights Tribunal, Indian Register, Indian Act

45 views8 pages
HLTH 102 – Indigenous Health Notes
Quick summary of Aboriginal situation in Canada:
-5% of Canadian population
-Community where 1/2 moms is a heroin addict so babies are born high
-Last residential school closed in 1996
-Infant mortality rate on Aboriginal reserves is 14 deaths per 1,000 births –
nearly double the national average
-Life expectancy among the Inuit is 15 years shorter than the Canadian
average
-Suicide rates among Aboriginal youth are up to 11 times higher than the
national average
-Close to 10 Aboriginal health research groups have had their funding either
severely cut or totally withdrawn
What was the deal with William Penn’s Treaty with the Indians in 1771?
-Made to look like this amazing thing
-Was really a matter of colonization and forced assimilation through
aggressive and unfair methods
What was the 1876 Indian Act?
-1876 Indian Act – Federal law that governs in matters pertaining to Indian
status, bands, and Indian reserves
-Administered by Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC).
-Authority has ranged from overarching political control, such as imposing
governing structures on Aboriginal communities in the form of band
councils, to control over the rights of Indians to practice their culture and
traditions.
-“The Indian Act is a part of a long history of assimilation policies that
intended to terminate the cultural, social, economic, and political
distinctiveness of Aboriginal peoples by absorbing them into mainstream
Canadian life and values.”
What did the “Potlatch Law” entail?
-In 1884, federal government banned potlatches under the Indian Act, along
with other ceremonies
-Potlatch - 1 of the most important ceremonies for coastal First Nations in the
west, and marked important occasions as well as served a crucial role in the
distribution of wealth
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 8 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
What were the amendments made in 1951 of the Indian Act?
-WWI ended in 1945 and there was a lot of colonization
-Saw laws of other countries and continents re indigenous people around the
world and realized our laws suck
-Had to respect + regard Aboriginals as “Canadian” if they’re fighting for them
-Thus, the more oppressive sections of the Indian Act were amended and
taken out:
oNo longer illegal for Indians to practice their customs and culture such
as the potlatch.
oAllowed to enter pool halls and to gamble—although restrictions on
alcohol were reinforced.
oIndians were also now allowed to appear off-reserve in ceremonial
dress without permission of the Indian Agent, to organize and hire
legal counsel, and Indian women were now allowed to vote in band
councils.
How does the Assembly of First Nations describe the Indian Act?
-As a form of Apartheid - (in South Africa) A policy or system of segregation
or discrimination on grounds of race.*
-Amnesty International, the UN, and the CHRC have continually criticized it as
a human rights abuse - Claim that the Canadian government does not have
the right to unilaterally extinguish Aboriginal rights (something the
government could legally do to status Indians up until 1985 through the
process of enfranchisement, and can still control through status)
Why was the Indian Act never abolished despite controversy?
-Said to acknowledge and affirm the unique historical and constitutional
relationship that the Aboriginal peoples have with Canada
-Government/Society (Us) as Paternalistic - Someone else controls your
status, future
So who really are the indigenous people?
-Aboriginal Peoples – Original inhabitants of Canada and their descendants,
including First Nations, Inuit, and Métis peoples
o1.8 million people in Canada who self-identify as Aboriginal
o~5% of Canada’s total population
What’s the deal with Indigenous terminology?
-Aboriginal, First Peoples, & Indigenous - All-encompassing term that
includes Inuit, First Nations (Indians), and Métis.
-First Nation - Contemporary term for "Indian".
-Aboriginal and First Nations are NOT interchangeable terms.
-Inuit - Contemporary term for "Eskimo".
-Inuit - "Aboriginal" or "First Peoples", but are not "First Nations", because
"First Nations" - Indians. Inuit are NOT Indians.
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 8 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Who are the First Nations people?
-630 distinct communities and approximately 60 different languages.
-About 49% of First Nations people reported living on reserves, while 51%
live off reserve.
-~75% residing off reserve, live in urban areas.
Who are Non-Status Indians?
-Many people who self-identify as Aboriginal are not registered under
Canada’s 1876 Indian Act, which defines who is considered a “Status Indian
and thus eligible for a range of programs and services offered by federal and
provincial agencies.
-213,900 First Nations People who were not Registered Indians in Canada,
representing 25% of the total Aboriginal population
Who are the Métis?
-Métis – (self-identified) Mixed First Nations and European heritage;
Descendants primarily of 18th century fur traders; ~ 452,000 in Canada
Who are the Inuit?
-Innu – First Nations (Indian) group located in northeastern Quebec and
central Labrador
-59,445 in Canada
What are the 2 causes of disease according to neurobiologist Ramon Cajal?
1. Pathophysiology
2. Politics – Ex. Trauma experienced by removal of Aboriginal children from
families was not isolated to specific children but disrupted the cohesiveness
of entire communities
What were said to be the 2 most effective means of ameliorating the condition
of the Indians?
1. To collect the Indians in considerable numbers, and to settle them into
villages, with a due portion of land for cultivation and support
2. To make such provision for their religious improvement, education, and
instruction in husbandry as circumstances may from time to time require
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 8 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class
Class+
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
30 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class