Core Concepts and Historical Concepts 12/20/2012
International Studies: involves studying things between nations, specifically by looking at how
different countries relate to and deal with each other in different ways.
What is a country?
Over 200 countries, every single part of the planet Earth ahs been claimed by some country or group of
countries. Three general exceptions to this observation:
2) Atmospheric nearspace – on the edge between the atmosphere and outer space;
3) The high seas – in the middle of the oceans.
These have been deemed international public spaces – unowned, any country can use them for
the general benefit of humanity, theoretically.
Countries have 4 basic elements
physical environment, defined by borders whether human made or natural)
• features territory and all the natural resources on top of, below, or surrounded by it. Most
vital natural resources: water, food crops, other plants, animals, timber, useful
rocks and mineral (ie gold, coal, oil ).
• 3 territorial largest countries: Russia, Canada, US…
• population – can be diverse or similar.
• Immigrant societies – countries populated b y waves of immigrants ie Canada
• Nation – group of people that sees itself as being a people (belonging in some meaningful
sense as a unit, having own identity, being separate and distinct from comparable groups)
• Nationalism – the drive of a nation to get its own state; a potent force of modern history
(American + French Revolutions)
Core Infrastructure – population’s needs ie) feed it, water it, house it, educate it.
• Most populous: China, India, US…
Culture – how people live, think and behave, split into high and low forms
High culture – especially good quality, or enduring merit; thought to represent the very best and most
meaningful pieces of culture. Ie) art masterpieces like Picasso of Spanish, Shakespeare for Britain.
Most common languages: Mandarin, Spanish English… Low culture – more common or widespread forms of belief and behaviour, such as dietary practices,
media content, religious practices.
Most common religions: Christianity, Islam, Hinduism…
Secular – nonreligious belief systems
Must distinguish between governments and nonstate actors – nongovernmental groupings or
institutions ie) businesses, churches, charities, sports leagues etc..
NonGovernmental Organizations – NGOs, most charitable nonstate actors
Social movements – broad based and widely dispersed groups of people devoted to a certain cause
Interest groups – more highly organized and more politically involved than social movements,
determined to get their particular interest onto the agenda of government and society, for the sake of
change and securing some kind of benefit. Ie) National Rifle Associations.
Most influential nonstate actors:
Multinational corporations (multiple units in multiple countries);
aid and development charities (NGOs);
social movements or international interest groups; terrorist groups – armed group that deliberately
uses violence against civilian populations in hopes that the resulting spread of fear amongst people will
further a narrow political agenda that the group has; insurgent forces – revolutionary armed groups,
committed to the violence overthrow of the government of their society; and private militias – armed
groups that are not part of any country’s official military, either political or mercenary in nature; either have
political agenda or sell services to highest bidder. Mercenary kind known as private military
The State – government of a country. Group of people responsible for making and enforcing the rules
that regulate the collective life of a people and thereby make an orderly social life possible on a given
territory. Still most influential agents in international life today.
How did the interstate system – current state of international affairs, 200 countries with four different
parts each – come into existence?
State Formation in Europe
Government was needed to organize when people stopped being hunter gatherers and formed
Nomadic huntergatherers – moving from site to site in pursuit of animals for food and the flight
from predators and each other. This is what drove humans across the whole planet.
First agricultural settlements – 10 000 years ago, realized they could effectively raise their own
food instead of chasing it, and it offered social, cultural and economic benefits. Earliest settlement – Mesopotamia area between Tigris and Euphrates rivers – now Iraq.
Origins of modern Europe – ancient Greek citystates: 600400 BCE tiny cities on coasts or waterways
ruled by municipal governments.
Most prominent: Athens, Delphi, Knossos, Marathon, Olympia, Sparta…
Couldn’t get along well enough to establish a national government so they were open to military conquest
by Alexander the Great and then by Rome (146 BCE)
Rome = first great European empire
Empire – system of governance forged in military conquest.
Metropole – imperial core, hub of empire, mother city.
Colonies – conquered and subjected lands “the dependencies”
Sometimes metropole gave colonies citizen rights, to cement obedience and attract best and brightest to
Metropole offered military protection to colonies
In exchange, colonies offer political allegiance, taxes, local troops, and a flow of natural resources.
Colony suffers brain drain – best and brightest seek better opportunities for themselves, leave colonies
to go to metropoles.
Roman empire most successful in the world.
Rise and fall of roman empire contributed to the state formation of Europe
On one hand, Roman’s showed how it could be done
On the other hand, might term governance a form of cosmopolitan governance – at odds with that
of the modern nationstate.
With collapse of Rome in the West we begin to see how the in between of Greek way of tiny citystates and
the roman way, come into being.
400s CE – Roman Empire collapsed after repeated barbarian invasions, ie) from what is now Germany
got too large to govern and governors were corrupt
Only institution that survived was Roman Catholic Church
Christianity was state religion, by Constantine and Theodosius
Period after is known as Dark Ages
• Antarctica treaty – destined to be an international public research part of the world for the rest of time
1. Arctic – everyone’s fighting for oil there. It’s not a public research park it’s been carved up into
national resource slices – Canada has a huge chunk
• Oceans – anything beyond 200 miles from a country is completely unowned.
1. Problem – great pacific garbage patch. No one owns the ocean so everyone dumps in it.
• Outer/Near space – countries own 12 miles up
Territory – Russia Canada US
• Natural resources – oil, minerals (copper cold titanium), water, food, labour (people)
• Water problems – MENA (middle east and north Africa)
Population – China India US
Culture – way of life
• High culture – protected, prized, mona lia
• Low culture – food they eat, entertainment, high tech, language (in order only if you count mother
tongue: 1 mandarin, then Spanish, then English), religion
• Global Digital Divide – 2 billion people around the world have never logged onto the internet
• 75% of all internet content is from the US
• vs NonState Actors – Religious organizations, NGO’s, interest groups, education/research,
corporations –MNCs, the UN, unions, terrorists, pirates (Somalia), militias, social media
• Death of the State book – says nonstate actors are going to rise up and take the place of the state.
• State governments control the means of control – police, military. Max Weber.
• State governments are also in charge of infrastructure, education, health care, the legal system,
monetary and fiscal policy (government spending which comes from taxation; amount of money in the
country), foreign policy, immigration/emigration, boarder control.
Other scholars have reminded us that state governments have a lot of control and 12/20/2012
How did the world become dominated by countries/nation states?
• Countries were formed first in Europe then were spread around the world through European
Imperialism and Colonization (form of empires)
• State refers to government only, nation is a group of people that views itself as a separate group of
• Nationalism is the drive of every nation to get its own state, this has caused tons of wars.
Dynamics of Empire
• Ethiopia – first people
• Mesopotamia – present day Iraq – first civilization – 10 thousand years ago
• Greek city states – Athens, Sparta, Marathon, Yves,
1. Too small, vulnerable,
2. Refused to get along
3. Two big powers then came along and conquered them, Persia, then Rome
Two Components of An Empire
• Metropole (core)
1. Biggest economy, biggest military which they send out and conquer colonies
• Peripheries (colonies)
Colony > Metropole
• Natural resources
• Taxes 12/20/2012
• Financial tribute
• Brain drain
• Roman empire ruled 500 BC – 500 A.D then Europe falls into Dark Ages
• Modern nation state develops over the next thousand years – best of both city states and empires
• 1492 – Columbus
• Portugal – Brazil, cities in India
Spain – Mexico, Central/South America (excluding Brazil) Caribbean, Florida, California
• France – New France (Canada & US), islands in Caribbean, Vietnam, west Africa, south Africa,
Indonesia, India, Caribbean islands, Australia
• England – Everyone, Canada, US, Caribbean, East/south Africa, Australia New Zealand, Hong Kong
• Belgium, Germany and Italy get in on it later
• Then they all try to conquer each other once the whole world is conquered, then the world wars
World War I
• Germans, AustHungarian Empire, Ottoman
• Vs England, France, Italy, Russia
• German want to challenge England and france for hegemony (power)
• First few years are a slaughter house then in 1917 Russia leaves because communist takes them over.
America comes in on the side of the UK and France. Six months later, it’s over.
• Treaty of Versailles
• Turks are on losing side and West breaks up Ottoman empire through force; first time West gets
involved in Middle East
• USA now a global power
• Germany is dealt with very harshly because of the treaty, Hitler rises, then WWII 12/20/2012
• All pretty much one big war because WWI caused WWII
World War II
• Nazis promise solutions and invade Poland then war starts
• Germany Italy Japan vs UK France USA OSSR
• All wind up completely broke and decolonize (19451990)
• Current scholars say we live in the age of an American Empire
• 700 military bases outside the US – 1000 US personnel
Hard Power – military force, money
• Soft Power – culture in all of its forms
• Views on Whether or Not America is an Empire
1. No way! At odds with US history, US rebelled against empire. They believe in human rights for
all! Might have lots of power but everyones just jealous. Hegemon but not empire
2. Yes. Revisionist historians (doesn’t believe conventional tale of history) – say it didn’t actually
happen the way Americans think it did. Until 1865 America was a slave society; expansion of
territory came at cost of Aboriginals. US was an empire right from the start. Right old white
protestant men claimed the whole continent for themselves. Went and ruled Alaska, Hawaii,
Japan, Middle East
1. Yes it’s an empire but it’s good – Project of the AC – because America is the most
powerful, only America can provide stability to the world and prevent anarchy. If you look
at global economy since america became dominant power it is congruent with rise of
global GDP. America also stands for great values
2. Yes it’s an empire and its bad – Chopski – all empires are bad; its about dominance and
control, opposite of democracy. American empire is especially bad because americans are
ethnocentric and know nothing about the rest of the world and don’t care.
North vs South
25% of world population
Way more wealth health, power, education, technology, urbanized, immigrants, social peace, stable
governance, life expectancy, even: reported personal happiness
Tons of immigration 12/20/2012
Life expectancy – 80 years (women 82, men 78)
75% of world population
way less wealth, health, power, education, technology, urbanized, immigrants, social peace, stable
governance, life expectancy, even: reported personal happiness
tons of emigration – “brain drain”
life expectancy – 60
Why has the world come to be split like this? European Imperialism, yes, but others too.
Does the North owe the South anything to make up for this? Later in aid & development unit.
Huntingdon hypothesized that there was a greater chance of war between civilizations where core values
were most dissimilar, as they would lack mutual respect for and understanding of each other.
West vs Rest in terms of “Civilization” (a way of life, loosely equals culture)
1) Western Europe + Colonies
2) Shared Values + Way of life
Limited, Democratic Government
A History of Christianity (though now a separation between church & state)
Commitment to science & technology
Robust “civil society” activity
1. All associations that are not the government
N.B.: these are idealized characteristics, and western societies don’t fulfill them perfectly. Nor are these
ideals immune from criticism as ideals. Ie individualism, capitalism &, for religious, sep. between church &
Huntington on “The Clash of Civilizations”
The farther apart on values, & the closer together geographically, the more likely war breaks out.
The west & middle eastern/Arab/Islamic civilization
Predicted states would go after Middle East
Conflict is caused by a clash of cultural ideals
2. Resources are just a “flash point”
Fear/insecurity of the other
USA vs USSR
After WWII, rivalry for hegemony
“Cold” because they never actually went to war directly
Capitalism vs communism
USSR fell apart in 90/91
Private property ownership allowed
Entrepreneurial rights > if you want to open a business you can, and keep some profits for yourself Population 12/20/2012
Population Population 12/20/2012
1. Asia: 60%, Africa: 15%, Europe, 10%; North Am, 8%, Central + South Am, 5%, Oceana: 2%
1. Asia; Europe, Africa; north am; central south am; oceana
• As income goes up, number of children goes down
• Year 2100 – population will level off at 10 billion
1. Lack of resources
2. Women’s rights/equality
3. Costs on average $300,000 to support a child from 018
• All future population increase in Global south
• Will level off because GDP will go up
1. Malthus came up with
• Fastest growing populations: Zimbabwe, niger, Uganda, Burundi, turks & caicos, UAE, Ethiopia,
• Slowest growing: mariana islands, cook islands, Bulgaria, Montenegro, Estonia, Ukraine, Latvia,
Russia, Serbia, Guyana
• People cause problems
1. Fastgrowing country
1. Have Young population
7. Suburbs Population 12/20/2012
8. Crime prevention
2. Slow growing country
1. You have an older population
3. Retirement – need for replacement workers; need to pay for pensions
4. Health care
Antinatalist vs pro natalist
• Anti Natalist
• China – one child per couple, 1979
1. Anti female
2. Population distortion
• Theres no child limits
• No prohibitions
• Massive, aggressive campaign of birth control education and dissemination
• Aimed at young girls (age 7)
• Controversial because they are so young, encouraging behaviour (sex) because exposing such young
• Pro Natalist
• Eastern Europe
• Population 12/20/2012
• Southeast asia
Quebec – wanna preserve culture
• Positive incentive: baby bonus $$
• Negative incentive: discourage or ban birth control
Immigrant vs Refugee vs Migrant Worker
• Top immigrant receiving societies: us, Russia, Germany, Ukraine, France, Saudi Arabia, Canada, India,
Britain, Spain (with Australia nearly tied)
• Permanent residency
• Diversity, younger, energetic, add to labour force and tax base, ties local economy to global economy
• View it as a cultural challenge
• Population growth insecurity
• Costs of welcoming immigrants into society
• Political motivation Population 12/20/2012
• Temporary crisis situation
• Safe haven, then hopefully get perm residency
• 510 million refugees
1. fled home to a serious reason
• “intake countries say you can stay for 6 months then move on
• called “stateless people”; no membership;
• Sudan Darfur
1. arab & muslim
2. use violence & intimidation to drive Christians out of Darfur
3. the UN estimates 300 thousand people killed
• decided to split Sudan to end conflict
• yet to decide on oil distribution
• Worker from country A, works in country B
• Work is seasonal, low paid, menial, agricultural
• Niagara winery, tender fruit
• California – 30% migrant workers
• Americans criticize people being in their country but consider jobs below them and don’t want them Urbanization 12/20/2012
• Growth of cities at expense of countryside (“rural fight”
• Majority of world population now lives in urban centres (10,000 ppl population)
• Begins with industrial revolution 1750
Had Agrarian Economies
Farms are plenty
Cities are few
3. Small scale, manmade, longtime, specialization
4. Stema innovation
5. Steel process
6. Cotton gin
Machinemade: higher production + quality
Factories are invented: Manchester
7. Assembly line
8. Everyone does division of labour
Pros & cons
Pros Urbanization 12/20/2012
Linked historically with modernization, industrialization & diversification
Better social services
Greater socioeconomic opportunities
Don’t have to be bad for environment (start building up, not out, make sufficient use of space!)
Comes at expense of rural way of life
Takes over wild space/environment
Concentration of human problems (noise, crime, traffic, garbage)
Huge management problems (transportation, infrastructure)
CSRs – CityState Region
Growing with globalization
Almost like mini empire – periphery things
Toronto – half Ontario’s population, half Ontario’s economy, 25% of all Canada’s economy
Nation states are being pulled in two directions – up to global economy, down to city level urbanization
We’re not going to talk about countries anymore, we’re going to talk about city states!
The Creative City – Theory
Needed especially in developed world to counteract shift to developing world. manufacturing.
Our economy is going to be service based, products of creativity
Substantial creative class (gets paid to think) (30%)
Creative economy – inventive white collar work focused on services & value added goods
Creative, pleasing city conditions: not individual, dense, greenery/natural beautity, tolerance & diversity
Jane Jacobs creator
9. Anti suburbia
10. Anti sprawl Urbanization 12/20/2012
11. Anti cookiecutter
13. Urban planner
14. Wants mixed housing – rich & poor togeter Blind Spot Film 12/20/2012
• Oil price goes up, so do agricultural > farmers need fuel for machines, truckers need fuel for truck
• Burn food to produce fuel? Ethic problem because 3.7 billion people in the world are malnourished
• Substituted oil for people – oil doing the work of people
o Food s cheap but people are fat
o We take advantage of energy
o Its not going to be there anymore eventually and not going to be cheap
80s and 90s wages stopped rising
o connection between falling wages and oil peaking
o need your wages to go up and prices to stay the same but the opposite happened
most food on our table has travelled 1500 miles, only possible because petroleum is so cheap
what happens when petroleum declines?
Beginning of industrial revolution – population increases tremendously and the scale of human impact on
the environment increases exponentially as well
Most serious problem to face the human race
We’ve met so many challenges, everyone thinks society has the ingenuity to face this problem too.
Positive feedback loop
Us does over 30% of worlds consumption, has only 4% population
Oil situation is like the holocaust
People make believe that the planet isn’t being killed, that money equates to happiness, to have
infinite growth on a finite planet, make believe that the age of oil is going to go on forever. Make
believe that people living in toxic hell don’t exist. Peak Oil Theory 12/20/2012
By $ value and value of trade, oil is the most valuable commodity in the world right now
Cascading impacts throughout the rest of the economy
Oil Production has reached its peak
Nature’s not making new oil
Easy oil vs. Difficult Oil
Easy – oil that need minimal refinement, easy to use, close to the surface, readily available. Oil of the
Difficult – not close to surface, remote locations, very expensive to extract, even once you extract it it’s filled
with impurities and requires a lot of processing. Tar sands in Canada.
Sucking all the easy oil, driving us to develop difficult oil sources.
So, oil production has peaked but demand is only going to increase because of population growth and
industrialization of the global south.
M.K. Hubbard – founder of the theory
Said in 1970 we’d reach peak oil
Controversy is about whether we know enough about the oil reserves
Have we reached peak oil? Will we exhaust oil supplies or will technology get better?
OPEC – Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
Cartel – controls majority of supply
First oil crisis in western society
BOOM: Growing economy – Inflation (rise of prices)
More jobs, higher income, spending a lot
BUST: Shrinking economy – deflation
Jobs lost, incomes down
Retailers must drop price to keep people buying Peak Oil Theory 12/20/2012
THEN THIS HAPPENS:
Stagflation – Oil price goes up, price of everything goes up – inflation
Because price of oil went up so much and energy is such a large expense, it contracted the economy.
Jobs were lost, income went down, spending went down.
What do you do when its not boom or bust, it’s stagflation?
Clash of Environmental Perspectives
Population & Industrialization
Pollution – exceeding earth’s “carrying capacity”
We take too goo dstuff out and put too much bad stuff in
First wrote about carrying capacity Malthus; Lovelock’s “gaia” – extreme environmental pessimist, earth is
one interlocking finite organism and because were doing all of this bad stuff, in Gaia we are a big
cancerous tumour on a greek goddess. Grow exponentially and leave behind all of our garbage.
E.g. of Easter Island
2 groups wanted to kill each other, multi generational war between the two tribes. They laid their hands on
every natural resource on the island. Now nothing left but the statues they built.
For everysolution, still huge problems & failed law (eg Kyoto Protocol & Climate Change)
If technology is so great how come such huge problems with food & water?
Yes therse tons of incentives but people don’t always follow such reasons & inventives
Yes there are good environmental agencies but they are underresourced
North vs south, no cooperation, bleak, peak oil future
Pessimists underestimate a) nature’s resiliency & b) our ingenuity
Earth is not Easter Island
Problems can & have been solved e.g Montreal Protocol & Ozone Peak Oil Theory 12/20/2012
Ozone is one of the best protectors from UV rays
CFCs (used to keep food cold) eat ozone causing holes and eroding.
Investigated into the problem
Made internatonal treaty (Montreal protocol) that banned the use of CFCS
New technology for refridgeration
Rainforests = carbon sinks
Tons of biodiversity,
Brazil is poor so they said they could chop down their rainforests and sell them
Brazil said, if you don’t want us to cut it down then pay us not to.
“Silent Spring” book
what happened to the birds that used to sing in the spring?
Found what was killing them was DDT (pesticides)
DDT got banned
Started EPA – environmental organization dedicated to keeping DDT banned?
Lonbord on technology – Green Revolution
combination of new inventions in the Global North/West plus so called “technology transfer” of these new
inventions from north to south
trying to improve & increase food production around the world.
Ie new fertilizers, genetic modifications to crops to make them more hardy and resistant to disease
UN Says theres a billion people in the world with not enough calories in their diet, also says billion people
with water poor – get by with 5L or less of water per day
So many reasons for people to care about the environment – governments, corporations, people
Governments have ballot box discipline Peak Oil Theory 12/20/2012
Corporations get fined
People live in the environment
Good environmental agencies, national & international
As south develops, they’ll want a cleaner world, new alternatives will be found
Great Global Warming Swindle
Climate Change Deniers
1) Global warming is a trend
a. Is humanity causing it?
i. Yes – industrial population 7 billion
ii. No ocean current, weather/climate – were nothing compared to the sun.
China & US aren’t in it, wouldn’t benefit them
Totally failed because of this
Show to environmentalist
Doesn’t get enforced, but environemtalists are temporarily happy
Corporations are happy because they don’t get passed
Party gets reelected 12/20/2012
Computers 1940s 1990s
Can we make computers talk?
All about the US military
Cold War – nuke war?
DARPA – creates Arpanet – first internet
US decides to privatize the network in the early 90s so that they can make money off the internet
1985 – 1 million people had internet access
2010 – 2 billion
still global digital divide
7580% of internet use is in the west/north 12/20/2012
Defined as religion – linking back of humanity to its origins eg in God 12/20/2012
Impact of Religion on Culture
literature & pop culture
action movies are based on David & goliath
politics & economics
eg Weber on link between Protestantism & capitalism
why does capitalism start in certain places?
First capitalist countries – England, Holland, America.
What do these countries have in common?
They’re majority protestant
Protestant are much more individualistic than Catholicism.
Individualism is in accord with capitalism
Protestants interpreted material wealth as a sign of favour from God. Whereas Catholic’s are taught to
Top 10 Religions/Belief Systems
Map of their Distribution
Religious vs Secular
Monotheistic vs Polytheistic 12/20/2012
Abrahamic vs Dharmic
Abrahamic – personal god, contract, MENA/Western, Islam, Christianity, Judaism
Common prophet, shared monotheism, god “personally” cares about humanity and even intervenes in
Dharmic – Impersonal God, less personal gods, Asian/Eastern
Common concept of underlying osmic order, impersonal (doesn’t care about humanity), can have lesser
gods but they’re not seen as the ultimate force,
Folk vs non folk
Folk – of the people
Non folk – spread over different linguistics cultures etc
Which religion is growing the fastest? Common debate
Difficult to come up with reliable figures
Most say it’s either Islam or Spanish speaking catholics, secularists
Jews had a kingdom in Palestine. They lost control (especially to Roman conquest) & spread out in
diaspora especially to Europe & USA. In the meantime, Arabs come to live in the area.
Palestine in modern times was goverened by the Ottoman Empire. Ths Empire we saw was on the losing
side of WWI and was broken up. The British took over Palestine & Jewish leaders around the world
pressured U.K (who owned it) to recreate a Jewish state in Palestine. UK via Balfour Declaration of 1916
vaguely agreed but did nothing.
193945 – Holocaust, 6 million dead
After Holocaust Jews said “hey” we need our own state because we cant trust anyone else to take care of
us, wanted Palestine. Palestinians were moved out of the territory and the new state of Israel was made in
Arab nations attacked, US and other countries helped. UN said 700,000 Palestinians were made refugees
by this displacement.
6 day war – Israel gained West bank, Gaza, Golan Heights in 1967
Israel says theyre essential to its military safety
Palestinians turn to terrorism 195090
Israel – nuclear weapons, IDF
Iran is still trying to destroy them 12/20/2012
Palestinians turn to terrorism; early 90s they began political process, inspired by South Africa & Northern
China & Tibet
1949, China, Communist Revolution led by Mao (communists are atheistic)
1950s, Tibet, formerly independent, annexed by China
1960s70s – China’s Cultural Revolution
Tibet, Buddhist monasteries destroyed (atheist communism vs Buddhism)
Huge purge of the non pure
100,000 – a million people died because they weren’t tried & true communists
Tibet is part of China
Tibet enjoys autonomy within China
Tibet benefits from massive Chinese investment
Cultural Revolution is over, monks are allowed, some monasteries have reopened
Says no its not part of China
Says they don’t have autonomy, ruled by Beijing
Chinese are moving into Tibet, diluting control
Language & religion clearly under threat
2008 revolution & crack down Foreign Policy 12/20/2012
Foreign Policy – how to interact with foreign countries
Policy comes from the greek word Polis which means community
Concerned with ruling and power
Policy is generally “How to rule a community?”
Domestic (inside borders)
Foreign (outside borders)
Ability to get what you want
Hard – economic wealth + military force… vs
Soft power – cultural influence
Great Powers – influence is global in nature
Combination of both hard and soft power
US, China, Russia, UK, France
Germany? Japan? Economic but not military
Saudi Arabia? Great control over oil
Does America deserve its own category?
Usually rivals with each other
Tackle problems alone, without help
Developed country, usually Western.
Cooperate with each other
Fans of international organizations like UN Foreign Policy 12/20/2012
Majority of countries in the world
Not a lot of influence regionally or globally
Lack of resources, lack of military strength, lack of population, neighbours with much larger countries that
Uncooperative, violate international law
North Korea, Belarus, Iran, Cuba used to be
Chopski says America is
Still a country but no government
Causes insecurity because of its weakness
Somalia – government fell in 1988
Occupied territory – Israel – some think it should be considered a failed state
Emerging vs Declining Powers
China, India, Pakistan, Germany
China Biggest population, nuclear power, growing economy, diaspora
Down Side – hemmed in by other great powers, population can be a negative, no natural resources
India – huge population, growing economy, democracy, diaspora, nulear power
Canada gives nuclear reactors to India, makes money off it. Win win.
They rejigged the reactor and came up with nuclear weapons in eight years
Pakistan put people in India, copied their nuclear ideas, took em back to Pakistan so now they have
bombs too. International Law*
International law – Idealists International Law*
Law (rules) between countries
Self created, come from treaties (contractual deal between different countries)
Come from custom (repeated habitual practice over time) ie the law of the sea, dealing with piracy, national
jurisdiction over water, how far a cannon can shoot a ball is your water
Can it by enforced? According to realists, not really.
Goal is to try and create order between nations that doesn’t rely on hegemony. Achieve peaceful, orderly,
peaceful relations between nations through rules and NOT power.
Chaos, war, anarchy, disorder/order, security, rules, justice
Good things have only been achieved through hegemony in history.
Without hegemon, we get it through rational agreement to mutually beneficial rules
1648 – Treaty of Westphalia – birth of international law
peace treaty bringing the 30 years war to an end (161848)
one of the worst wars in European history
protestant/catholic religious war
in Germany it killed 1/3 of the population.
Catholic church had monopoly in Europe, sole church in Europe
1517 > protestant reformation
thought there was a bunch wrong with the catholic church, protested, broke away & formed their own.
Realized they couldn’t wipe each other out and had to come up with a modus vivendi (way to live)
Treaty of Westphalia:
Birth of modern international law
First expression of religious tolerance anywhere (live & let live)
Establishes the two most important rights of nationstates International Law*
Political sovereignty – right to rule without intervention provided it respects that right for all others
Territorial integrity – people have the right to a livable territory to make political sovereignty real. Implies
marking territory with borders, ownership over natural resources,
Kinds of Treaty
(eg FTA 1989) point was to reduce tariffs
Regional (EG Nafta 1994)
Confined geographical area
Various EU treaties (e.g. of Maastridd)
NATO (1949) (largest most effectivemilitary alliance against soviet union to come to Europe’s defence if
they rolled tanks into France)
Most of the countries of the world
Charter of UN 1945
Antarctican Treaty 1959
Kyoto Protocol fail
If international law = treaties, then work international lawyers do involves research, drafting, interpreting and
Steps of Making and Enforcing a Treaty
1) Problem/Opportunity International Law*
A problem or opportunity affecting two or more countries is identified
Great Lakes between US and Canada
2) Search for Solution
Lowlevel officials and civil servants conduct factfinding, proposals, and counterproposals
After a deal has been negotiated and approved, a treaty is drafted
Deal often falls through, fact finding is very contested, failure is the norm with international treaties.
Heads of state sign the treaty at a public signing ceremony.
5) Return to the Home Country
The signed treaty is brought back to home countries of the signing heads of state
3 readings (2 is crucial), majority vote in house of commons, if it passes goes to senate, then goes to
governor general, (then queen?) then it’s a law.
6) Introduction as Bill
The treaty is introduced at home as a bill as part of the domestic lawmaking process
If passed, the treaty becomes law
8) Ratification International Law*
The treaty is thus officially ratified
9) Grace Period
Sometimes a grace period exists before the treaty s enforced, giving countries time to make necessary
adjustments (as long as ten years)
The treaty, now a fullblown law, both nationally and internationally, is in force, subject to penalties if
Typical Subject Matter of Three Kinds of Treaties
Very narrow subject matter, not of political controversy, relies a lot on scientific data or just obvious
universal shared interested
Small, massively successful
International flights and luggage
Trade, free trade
Regulation of multinational corporations International Law*
War and peace
When treaty is enforced
Realist objection – since it’s self made, it’s actually not law because there’s no neutral third party
Idealist Replies – generally, it’s in your selfinterest to keep your promises. Generally countries want a
stable, predictable international order. Now a days, international law breakers get punished from all the
countries involved in the treaty, collective law enforcement. Who says its only law if there’s only neutral
third party enforcement? Increasingly, international law creates international organizations to help with
enforcement. Increasingly, international law creates international organizations to help enforcement.
First attempt was League oF Nations – failed because US creates it but doesn’t participate in it.
Created after WWI in 194546
Global, multilateral organizations
Head quarters in NY, important offices in Geneva, Paris, trying to create important offices in Kenya, Nairobi
To prevent war and secure peace
To help realize everyone’s human rights International Law*
To serve as a symbol of our common and evolving humanity
To aid in the development of the Global South
To serve as a forum where the world’s nations can share their views and seek to coordinate behaviour that
can solve shared problems
To gather, and make available, information about international life and global affairs (ie data about
worldwide economic growth or the crossborder spread of a disease)
Top of list = very political, bottom = technical subjects.
Parts & Functions of UN
General Assembly (legislative branch)
Heart of the UN, every member nation is a GA member and everyone gets 1 vote.
Small country’s vote weighs as much as a big country’s vote
Resolutions passed by GA are generally nonbinding
It allocates the UN’s budget
Remains broadly accountable for the overall aim and direction of UN
Kind of legislative branch of the UN
Meets in late fall ever year
Security Council (Executive Branch)
5 permanent members who are capable of vetos
all winners of WWII > France, China, UK, US, Russia
people talk about reformation but nothing is done because these big 5 don’t want to get rid of or dilute
power. A lot of people want Egypt, South Africa, Brazil…. Not happening any time soon.
10 other stiffs, temporary
binding on everybody International Law*
decides what’s an international threat
sometimes they won’t meet when wars are going on because they don’t want to get involved
can do anything ie sanctions on North Korea, Iraq; can demand Afghanistan hand over members of
Biggest power = send in armed forces
The UN has no army, no assets of its own
All of its assets have been donated by a member country.
If it decides it wants to send in armed forced somewhere it’s relying on it’s member nations
When it sends in armed force its to do peace keeping or peace making
Canada invented UN peacekeeping
Suez canal used to transport oil
Nasser comes to power in Egypt and says he’s had enough of western oil tankers going through Egyptian
territory and not getting anything, wanted a cut of every once of oil that goes through. Took it over by
armed force and shut it down. UK and France were pissed and a war broke out. Israel got involved with
Negotiating deal, how to prevent new war from breaking out while negotiating?
Send in peace keepers from Canada! Americans convinced Egypt Canada is neutral and pretty much an
American country not just loyal to Britain and France.
Now water way is international, but a payment to Egypt is made for oil that goes through.
Lester B. Pearson created this idea of peace keeping (minister of external affairs) then awarded Nobel
Peace Prize, then became Prime Minister in 63.
Peace Keeping – there’s a peace to keep, belligerents have separated themselves, there is a peace, UN
comes in to make sure peace is maintained. UN has been very successful with peace keeping missions
because belligerents want peace.
Peace making – no peace to keep. Belligerents are still fighting, UN is intervening in a war. UN’s record
here is much less successful because countries might not want peace and you’re trying to impose peace on
them. For example, in Bosnia in the early 90s Yugoslavia fell apart as a result of the collapse of
communism. Yugoslavia broke into its ethnic components, civil war got so violent UN tried to impose
peace, and were completely unable to control the peace. UN peacekeepers got taken hostage by Serbs
and Americans had to come in and free them. Americans activated NATO and forces the Serbs to sign.
World Court (ICJ)
Also a separate court – international criminal court created by Rome. International Law*
Plans on blending them together over the next 5 years.
If countries have a problem and can’t negotiate, they can go to this court and have a panel of 9 international
Only hears cases voluntarily brought to it by the parties.
On average only 9 cases heard every year
No power to enforce decisions
Moral suasion only
5/9 judges come from the Security Council countries the rest are nominated.
Nicaragua vs the US
1985 explosion in a harbor in capital of Nicaragua
says it was blown up by the US in an act war
President of Nicaragua was far left supported governments US didn’t like
Next year, America to shut up Nicaragua said ok lets go to the world court to try and prove we bombed you
(even though they thought they didn’t)
ICJ found that YES the harbor WAS blown up by the agents of the US because where the bomb came from
was ONLY in the US.
Great moral victory
America says so what are you going to do about it?
Nothing actually changed
Honduras vs El Salvador
Went to ICJ
Argument about border
ICJ drew the border
Since then, peace!
Big decision that was actually followed
Israeli Palestinian conflict
Built huge wall on grounds to prevent terrorist strikes like suicide bombings
Palestinians said it argued with their right of movement and right to make a living – against human rights International Law*
ICJ – Israeli wall violates human rights of Palestinian. 30 mins after, Israeli President went on TV and said
“thanks but the wall is staying up cause its vital to our security”
ABOVE, BIG BLUE SKY CONTROVERSIAL BRANCHES OF THE UN. FAILURES IN THESE
BELOW, OTHER BRANCHES THAT HAVE ATTAINED A TON OF SUCCESS
Economic and Social Council
Headquartered in Paris
Growing GDP, eliminating poverty
TONS of success with some development aid and assistance
World trade organization
Helped reduce tariffs around the world for 50 years.
World health organization
Ran a successful campaign to eliminate small pox from the world
Been very successful
Civil service of the UN
People who run the UN
Headed by secretary general
Often called world’s top diplomat, completely untrue, more like corporate president.
But does have power to force the se