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KIN 155 Lecture Notes - Baddeley'S Model Of Working Memory, Spatial Memory, Sensory Memory

Course Code
KIN 155
Fran Allard

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Lecture 24 – Cognition and Motor Performance
Parts of the cognitive system
sensory memory
attention is not required for input
information does not last → ½ (vision) to 10 seconds (hearing) in duration
literal copy or raw sensory data → like a photograph or audio tape
not processed for meaning
found for vision, hearing, touch
short-term or working memory
needs attention for input
needs rehearsal for maintenance
class examples:
6259036 (immediate recall) 100% recall ← mental rehearse
9396534 (20 second interval) 100% recall ← mental rehearse
4934032 (count backwards from 900) 1 person ← task prevents mental rehearsal
9775816 (count backwards from 543) few more ← prevents mental rehearsal
849 0342 (pat head + rub tummy for 20s) +90% recall ← rhythmic assists rehearsal
591 9317 (say the words to (O, Canada) 0% recall ← task prevents mental rehearsal
Tasks done after to be remembered material has been presented but before a person recalls are called
interpolated tasks
Such tasks affect recall because they divert attention from the rehearsal of the memory items, thus
showing the importance of continued attention in STM
Long term memory
memory for facts, language, events of a person's life, skills
works best (most reliably) when information is attended and organized at input →
mnemonic devices
Cognition and motor behavior: elements of the cognitive system are:
Sensory memory
Short term or working memory
Long term memory
Attention à system’s CEO
Modern STM à working memory (Baddeley)
Lecture 25 – Working memory
components of working memory
central executive:
plans and controls ongoing behavior
directs attention
controls the activities of the slave systems
integrates information from slave systems and long term memory
has a limited capacity
the articulatory loop

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deals with verbal or verbalization material
sound based – converts information into spoken equivalent, ie, reading phone# converted
into speech
has two components
the phonological store holds information
the phonological loop rehearse this information
has a limited capacity
the visuo-spatial sketch pad
deals with spatial and spatial motor information
also has two components:
the visual cache holds information
the inner scribe rehearses information
has a limited capacity
since VSSP and AL are independent of each other, they can function at the same time
without conflict.
The episodic buffer
limited capacity
temporary storage system
multi-modal – puts verbal and spatial information together into episodes or events
also able to use long term memory to integrate information into meaningful chucks
Baddeley makes parallel with watching a scene in a movie. This involves putting
together th word spoken, the actions taken, the visual environment and integrating this
with what has happened previously in the film
in general, making sense of the contents of working memory
Uses of the slave systems of working memory
articulatory loop → remembering phone number, remembering names, manipulation
Working memory theory (Baddeley)
Central executive
Articulatory or phonological loop
And the episodic buffer (“it comprises a limited capacity system that provides temporary
storage of information help in a multi-modal code, which is capable of binding information
from the subsidiary systems, and from long-term memory, into a unitary episodic
representation.” Baddeley, 2000)
Working memory theory tested by investigating the slave systems
By having people do dual task that require the same or different slave systems
According to working memory theory, if the two tasks require the same slave system, they
should conflict
If the two tasks require different slave systems, they should not conflict
Had participants do a movement task (pursuit rotor task) at the same time as
A word categorization task memorized a sentence before dial task trial began, e.g., a bird in
the hand is not in the bush

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A spatial categorization task shown the outline shape of a letter, with one of the corners
marked, e.g., F
Participant memorized the shape before dual task trial, then decided whether each of the
corners would touch a line drawn above or below the letter
Participants were instructed to attend to the classification task to do as well in dual task
classification tasks as classification done alone
Baddeley’s results:
No significant differences for words or corners from single to dual task
Pursuit rotor + verbal classification = no interference; both tasks can be done at the same time
Pursuit rotor + corner classification = significant drop in pursuit rotor time on target; the two
tasks cannot be done at the same time
Second version of this study requiring participants to focus on pursuit rotor while doing a verbal
or a spatial memory task
Lecture 26 - Long term memory (LTM)
Two misconceptions about how it functions:
LTM is a literal copy, like a videotape, of your entire life
that LTM is one thing
Misconceptions 1: what is stored in LTM?
Convincing evidence that LTM is not literal from bartlett's 1932 book Remembering
Developed a procedure called “Serial Reproduction”
participants given memory material (story, drawing) to study for later recall (that is, recall is
not a surprise)
for stories, participants is instructed to read the material twice
Person returns to normal activities that they can recall of the story
the first person's recall is passed to the second participant (only the first participant sees the
original story), who repeats the precedure followed by the first participant, then passes
his/her recall on to the third participant …
similar to game “telephone: or “broken telephone” (or like gossip)
also used a similar procedure – method of repeated reproduction – with a single person
recalling materials over years.
Bartlett studied LTM using the method of serial reproduction:
person 1 studies story → returns to real life → writes out recall → person 2 studies this recall
→ returns to real life → writes our recall → so on
Example: war of the ghost story, a Canadian west coat Indian story
By the 10th recall, not much left of the original story
Bartlett found consistent changes in the recalls of his participants, independent of the type of
verbal material studied (folk story, news, sports)
changes where
the title of the passage was lost almost immediately (and the title often was an important
clue to understanding the content)
the original writer's style was quickly lost
the names of people and places were mangled
the passage get much shorter
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