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Lecture 24-33 part three

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KIN 155
Fran Allard

Lecture 24 Cognition and Motor Performance Parts of the cognitive system sensory memory attention is not required for input information does not last (vision) to 10 seconds (hearing) in duration literal copy or raw sensory data like a photograph or audio tape not processed for meaning found for vision, hearing, touch short-term or working memory needs attention for input needs rehearsal for maintenance class examples: 6259036 (immediate recall) 100% recall mental rehearse 9396534 (20 second interval) 100% recall mental rehearse 4934032 (count backwards from 900) 1 person task prevents mental rehearsal 9775816 (count backwards from 543) few more prevents mental rehearsal 849 0342 (pat head + rub tummy for 20s) +90% recall rhythmic assists rehearsal 591 9317 (say the words to (O, Canada) 0% recall task prevents mental rehearsal Tasks done after to be remembered material has been presented but before a person recalls are called interpolated tasks Such tasks affect recall because they divert attention from the rehearsal of the memory items, thus showing the importance of continued attention in STM Long term memory memory for facts, language, events of a person's life, skills works best (most reliably) when information is attended and organized at input mnemonic devices Review Cognition and motor behavior: elements of the cognitive system are: Sensory memory Short term or working memory Long term memory And Attention systems CEO Modern STM working memory (Baddeley) Lecture 25 Working memory components of working memory central executive: plans and controls ongoing behavior directs attention controls the activities of the slave systems integrates information from slave systems and long term memory has a limited capacity the articulatory loop deals with verbal or verbalization material sound based converts information into spoken equivalent, ie, reading phone# converted into speech has two components the phonological store holds information the phonological loop rehearse this information has a limited capacity the visuo-spatial sketch pad deals with spatial and spatial motor information also has two components: the visual cache holds information the inner scribe rehearses information has a limited capacity since VSSP and AL are independent of each other, they can function at the same time without conflict. The episodic buffer limited capacity temporary storage system multi-modal puts verbal and spatial information together into episodes or events also able to use long term memory to integrate information into meaningful chucks Baddeley makes parallel with watching a scene in a movie. This involves putting together th word spoken, the actions taken, the visual environment and integrating this with what has happened previously in the film in general, making sense of the contents of working memory Uses of the slave systems of working memory articulatory loop remembering phone number, remembering names, manipulation Review Working memory theory (Baddeley) Central executive Articulatory or phonological loop VSSP And the episodic buffer (it comprises a limited capacity system that provides temporary storage of information help in a multi-modal code, which is capable of binding information from the subsidiary systems, and from long-term memory, into a unitary episodic representation. Baddeley, 2000) Working memory theory tested by investigating the slave systems By having people do dual task that require the same or different slave systems According to working memory theory, if the two tasks require the same slave system, they should conflict If the two tasks require different slave systems, they should not conflict Had participants do a movement task (pursuit rotor task) at the same time as Aword categorization task memorized a sentence before dial task trial began, e.g., a bird in the hand is not in the bush Aspatial categorization task shown the outline shape of a letter, with one of the corners marked, e.g., F Participant memorized the shape before dual task trial, then decided whether each of the corners would touch a line drawn above or below the letter Participants were instructed to attend to the classification task to do as well in dual task classification tasks as classification done alone Baddeleys results: No significant differences for words or corners from single to dual task Pursuit rotor + verbal classification = no interference; both tasks can be done at the same time Pursuit rotor + corner classification = significant drop in pursuit rotor time on target; the two tasks cannot be done at the same time Second version of this study requiring participants to focus on pursuit rotor while doing a verbal or a spatial memory task Lecture 26 - Long term memory (LTM) Two misconceptions about how it functions: LTM is a literal copy, like a videotape, of your entire life that LTM is one thing Misconceptions 1: what is stored in LTM? Convincing evidence that LTM is not literal from bartlett's 1932 book Remembering Developed a procedure called Serial Reproduction participants given memory material (story, drawing) to study for later recall (that is, recall is not a surprise) for stories, participants is instructed to read the material twice Person returns to normal activities that they can recall of the story the first person's recall is passed to the second participant (only the first participant sees the original story), who repeats the precedure followed by the first participant, then passes his/her recall on to the third participant similar to game telephone: or broken telephone (or like gossip) also used a similar procedure method of repeated reproduction with a single person recalling materials over years. Bartlett studied LTM using the method of serial reproduction: person 1 studies story returns to real life writes out recall person 2 studies this recall returns to real life writes our recall so on Example: war of the ghost story, a Canadian west coat Indian story By the 10 recall, not much left of the original story Bartlett found consistent changes in the recalls of his participants, independent of the type of verbal material studied (folk story, news, sports) changes where the title of the passage was lost almost immediately (and the title often was an important clue to understanding the content) the original writer's style was quickly lost the names of people and places were mangled the passage get much shorter
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