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PACS 201 (55)
Lecture

Lecture 1- Conlict, Violence, Peace.pdf

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Department
Peace and Conflict Studies
Course
PACS 201
Professor
Nathan Funk
Semester
Winter

Description
Lecture  One-­‐  Conlict,  Violence,  Peace   Conflict:   • Indicators  of  conflict:  expression  of  struggle,  emotional  intensity,   disagreement   • Latin:  Confligere-­‐  “strike  together”   • Is  conflict  a  bad  thing?-­‐  If  no  conflict  then  there  is  no  life   • “  What  results  from  the  existence,  real  or  imagined,  of  incompatible  interests,   goals,  beliefs  or  activities”   • Most  scholars  argue  that  conflict  is  not  inherently  good  or  bad  but  can  be   either  :  constructive  or  deconstructive   • Based  on  how  we  handle  conflict   • Key  thing  is  Conflict  does  not  always  mean  violence   • Violence  is  a  subset-­‐  a  type  of  conflict   • Conflict  is  used  loosely  in  media   • Conflict  is  normal  and  people  disagree  as  to  how  normal  it  is   • Most  conflict  not  violent   • Distinction:  Nonviolent,  armed  or  violent  conflict  (watch  out  when  writing   papers)   Violence:     • Latin:  Violare-­‐  “to  violate”   • Harm  or  degradation:  action  that  violates  the  wholeness  or  integrity  of  a   living  system   • Violence  is  a  condition  that  deprives  us  from  out  full  humanity   • Project  Ploughshares  in  Waterloo   • 3  types  of  violence:   • Seen:  Direct  violence   • Unseen:  Structural  and  cultural  violence   • Intertwined   • Direct  violence:  a  clear  actor  and  a  clear  victim   • Action  that  causes  harm  is  obvious   • Eg:  Terrorism,  domestic  abuse,  harassment-­‐  even  psychological  harm  is   violence   • Unseen:  Structural  Violence:  “cold”  or  institutionalized  violence  caused  by   social  systems   • Indirect:  no  obvious  perpetrator   • Preventable  and  unnecessary  harm  to  human  beings   • Eg.  Government  policies  towards  aboriginal  peoples   • Many  intermediataries:  people  who  voted  for  these  people  etc   • Exploitation,  repression,  environmental  destruction,  unequal  distribution  of   life  chances   • Theories  say  that  causes  of  conflict  arise  from  structural  violence   • Debate  on  what  is  and  isn’t  structural  violence   • Unseen:  Cultural  Violence:  “mental”  or  symbolic   • Beliefs  and  attitudes  that  justify,  affirm  or  encourage  direct  or  structural   violence  may  themselves  be  regarded  as  “  violent”   • Eg.  Stereotyping,  racism,  dehumanization  (saying  this  race  o  people  are  like   animals)   • Prelude  to  direct  violence   • Attitude  towards  otherness:  people  acting  as  if  certain  group  of  people  don’t   matter  and  deserve  this  treatment   • Militarism:  development  of  a  social  ecos  that  is  military  solution  to  political   problems   • Virtual  violence  as  entertainment   • Applying  these  in  Apartheid  in  South  Africa   • White  verses  non  whites-­‐  different  and  unequal  race   • Life  expectancy  was  different  between  two  groups-­‐  indirect  structural   violence   • Direct  violence:  police  maintain  system,  conflict  system   Peace:   • Symbols  of  peace:  peace  sign,  dove,  happy  smile   • Salam  and  sholom:  deep  sense  of  security  and  peace   • Sense  of  justice   • Different  ways  of  expressing  peace  around  the  world   • “violence”  means  absence  of  peace  therefore,  “peace”  is  absence  of   violence   • 3  types:  Direct,  structural,  cultural   • Direct  “negative”  peace:   • Most  heard  and  read  about  eg.  peace  agreement,  ceasefire   • Absence  of  direct  violence  especially  war  and  armed  conflict   • Conceptually  saying  there  is  something  missing-­‐  direct  violence-­‐  but   means  there  maybe  profound  conflict  may  still  exist  –  eg.  Cease  fire  in   Korean  Peninsula   • This  is  temporary  peace   • Structural  “  Positive”  peace:  absence  of  structural  violence   • Presence  of  conditions  that  favor  human  well-­‐being  eg.  Social  justice,   human  rights,  e
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