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Martha Savage

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LECTURE 25 BASIC MOTIVATIONS Pg 443 – 451 - to psychologists, a motivation is a need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it toward a goal 36.1 Introduction to Motivation From what perspectives do psychologists view motivated behavior? 4 perspectives: 1) Instinct theory – focuses on genetically predisposed behaviours 2) Drive-reduction theory – focuses on how our inner pushes and external pulls interact 3) Arousal theory – focuses on finding the right level of stimulation 4) Hierarchy of needs (Abraham Maslow) – describes how some of our needs take priority over others Instincts and Evolutionary Psychology - to qualify as an instinct, a complex behavior must have a fixed pattern throughout a species and be unlearned (ie: newly hatched ducks and geese form attachments to the first moving object they see, mature salmon swimming upstream for spawning) Drives and Incentives - replaced instinct theory - the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused state that drives the organism to reduce the need by, say, eating or drinking - homeostasis -> a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state - not only are we pushed by our “need” to reduce drives, we also are pulled by incentives  positive or negative stimuli that lure o
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