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PSYCH 101 (705)

Memory Lecture and textbook notes covering the whole topic of memory. Includes encoding into memory, retaining, retrieval and forgetting, as well as the Buffer Model of memory and definitions for bolded words in the textbook.

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Colin Mac Leod

Sleep & Dreaming October-14-10 9:09 AM Not dangerous to wake someone while sleep walking Consciousness  Sleep is altered consciousness  Our awareness of ourselves and our environment  Closely related to attention  What Watson and the behaviourists wanted to get rid of because they thought it could not be observed o When you are typing, what are you conscious of? What you want to say, the keystrokes  Consciousness modulates during the day Biological Rhythms  Circadian rhythm: the regular biological rhythms that occur on a roughly 24-hour clock; the 'biological clock' o Alertness, temperature, hormones o Body temperature rise as morning approaches, peaks during the day, drops when we go to sleep o Bright light in the morning activates light sensitive retinal proteins. Proteins trigger signals to the brain's suprachiasmatic nucleus in the hypothalamus. SCN causes pineal gland to decrease production of sleep - inducing hormone melatonin o Artificial light messes with circadian rhythm and delays sleep  Young people's cognition better later in the day, older people's cognition better earlier in the day  Sleep: periodical, natural, reversible loss of consciousness Sleep Stages  To measure brainwaves, attach electrodes to the head and measure brainwaves.  Awake: beta waves  Five sleep stages every 90 minutes  Just before sleep: alpha waves in the midst of beta waves. Taller, jagged o Still awake: records alpha waves. Transition to sleep marked by slow breathing and irregular theta waves. o Stage 1 sleep: theta waves, more distance between the waves. May experience hallucinations - sensory experiences that occur without a sensory stimulus o Stage 2 sleep: sleep spindles, high amplitude, rapid waves. Associated with jerking while sleeping. K complex: very high amplitude, slow waveform. REM sleep occurs o Stage 3: delta waves; taller, slower, longer o Stage 4: deep sleep, relaxed muscles, delta waves account of more than 50%  Rapid eye movement: signals vivid dreaming, also called dream sleep. Spend 25% of time in REM sleep. Occurs in stage two. Periods increase in length and frequency toward morning. REM rebound - if we get less than 25% REM sleep we make up for it the next night. Brain's motor cortex active during REM sleep, but brainstem blocks messages so muscles are completely relaxed  REM rebound: tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation  Once stage four is reached, you drift backwards to stage two, and back down again Sigmund Freud  'The Interpretation of Dreams' was his classic book on dream analysis  Used dreams to chart the 'hidden workings' of the unconscious mind  Believed that dreams exhibited the unconscious Why do we sleep? October-14-10 7:59 PM Sleep patterns are genetically and culturally influenced With sufficient sleep, we awake refreshed, have better moods and perform more efficient and accurate work When we get less than sufficient sleep, the brain keeps track with a sleep debt of at least two weeks Sleep for 1/3 of our lives Effects of Sleep Loss  Difficulty studying  Diminished productivity  Irritable  Tendency to make mistakes  Increases ghrelin (hunger arousal) and decreases leptin (hunger suppressor) o Makes you fatter  Suppress immune cells that fight off cancer and viral infection  Chronic sleep debt alters metabolic and hormonal functions in ways that mimic aging Sleep Theories 1. Sleep protects o Ancestors could not hunt in the dark, better off asleep 2. Helps us recuperate o Rest
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