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Lecture 7

Lecture 7 - Motivation

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Richard Ennis

Lecture 7: Motivation Outline: Basic Model and Concepts Mechanistic Approach Internal Push: Instincts, Needs, and Drives. External Pull: Incentives Humanistic Approach Hierarchy of Needs (Maslow) Expectancy Approach Expectancy-Value theory (Murray) Self-Efficacy Theory (Bandura) Cognitive Approach Cognitive Evaluation Theory (Deci) Goal Setting Theory (Locke and Latham) Social Approach Social Identity Theory (Tajfel and Turner) Motivation is the theories used to explain the motion of humans. We are not as predictable as say, the theory of gravity. If it were possible to predict a person’s actions even 30% of the time, the theory discovered would be highly impressive. • Motivation is an inferred variable. It is used to infer a psychological state which has gone to explain the behaviour of an individual. Behaviour X Person  Environment  Outcomes Why? • The quantity of energy used in the behaviour is one of the determining factors that help to identify the underlying motive. o i.e.: Intensity/arousal, persistence, choices. Mechanistic Model: • applies to any living organism • Instinctive behaviour; we do not choose to do these things, we did not learn them, we are born with this behavioural response built in. “Drives responses from within”. o i.e.: infant sucking response, fight or flight response, instinctive attachment (imprinting). • Needs are a hydraulic model. It depends on the needs of your body whether or not you act on these behaviours (pressure or force of the drive). o i.e.: need for water/food. o When the need increases, the drive increases. o Freud believed that this model also applies to social interactions. • “The ticking time-bomb”; we have a need to aggress, to let out our anger, or else it will build and overtake your behaviour. • Needdrivebehaviour • Incentives seem to pull behaviours out of us, avoiding negative outcomes and leaning towards positive ones. o Operant conditioning generates behaviour to gain rewards or avoid negative outcomes. Humanistic Movement: • Humans are a special creature, and in order to understand them you would need to go beyond the previous theory. • Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: 5) Self actualization needs: Need to live up to one’s fullest and unique potential. 4) Esteem needs: Need for self esteem, achievement, competence, and independence; need for recognition and respect from others. 3) Belongingness and love needs: Need to love and be loved, to belong and be accepted; need to avoid loneliness and alienation. 2) Safety needs: Need to feel that the world is organized and predictable; need to feel safe, secure, and stable. 1) Physiological needs: Need to satisfy hunger and thirst. • There is no scientific or empirical support for this theory. o Harlow’s attachment theory disproves this model. Carl Rogers also had a humanistic theory that leant towards clinical applications. His definition of self actualization is more “to each his own”discrepancy theory. • We set ideal standards for ourselves (goals), and strive to reach that self. • The quest can either proceed healthily, or you can reach obstacles. When we reach self actualization, we typically regroup and start all over again. Expectancy Approach: • Murray and his colleagues develop the expectancy theories. o A notion concerning seeking outcomes. o What determines the behaviour is determined by expectancies and incentives. o Based on incentive values, we would be able to predict which behaviours the person would express in order to reach the highest valued incentive. (Value/Incentive) o Ou
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