Lecture 7: Motivation
Basic Model and Concepts
Internal Push: Instincts, Needs, and Drives.
External Pull: Incentives
Hierarchy of Needs (Maslow)
Expectancy-Value theory (Murray)
Self-Efficacy Theory (Bandura)
Cognitive Evaluation Theory (Deci)
Goal Setting Theory (Locke and Latham)
Social Identity Theory (Tajfel and Turner)
Motivation is the theories used to explain the motion of humans.
We are not as predictable as say, the theory of gravity. If it were possible to predict a
person’s actions even 30% of the time, the theory discovered would be highly impressive.
• Motivation is an inferred variable. It is used to infer a psychological
state which has gone to explain the behaviour of an individual.
Person Environment Outcomes
• The quantity of energy used in the behaviour is one of the determining
factors that help to identify the underlying motive.
o i.e.: Intensity/arousal, persistence, choices.
• applies to any living organism
• Instinctive behaviour; we do not choose to do these things, we did not
learn them, we are born with this behavioural response built in.
“Drives responses from within”.
o i.e.: infant sucking response, fight or flight response, instinctive
• Needs are a hydraulic model. It depends on the needs of your body
whether or not you act on these behaviours (pressure or force of the
o i.e.: need for water/food.
o When the need increases, the drive increases. o Freud believed that this model also applies to social
• “The ticking time-bomb”; we have a need to aggress, to
let out our anger, or else it will build and overtake your
• Incentives seem to pull behaviours out of us, avoiding negative
outcomes and leaning towards positive ones.
o Operant conditioning generates behaviour to gain rewards or
avoid negative outcomes.
• Humans are a special creature, and in order to understand them you
would need to go beyond the previous theory.
• Maslow’s hierarchy of needs:
5) Self actualization needs:
Need to live up to one’s fullest and unique potential.
4) Esteem needs:
Need for self esteem, achievement, competence, and independence; need for recognition and respect from others.
3) Belongingness and love needs:
Need to love and be loved, to belong and be accepted; need to avoid loneliness and alienation.
2) Safety needs:
Need to feel that the world is organized and predictable; need to feel safe, secure, and stable.
1) Physiological needs:
Need to satisfy hunger and thirst.
• There is no scientific or empirical support for this theory.
o Harlow’s attachment theory disproves this model.
Carl Rogers also had a humanistic theory that leant towards clinical applications. His
definition of self actualization is more “to each his own”discrepancy theory.
• We set ideal standards for ourselves (goals), and strive to reach that
• The quest can either proceed healthily, or you can reach obstacles.
When we reach self actualization, we typically regroup and start all
• Murray and his colleagues develop the expectancy theories.
o A notion concerning seeking outcomes.
o What determines the behaviour is determined by expectancies
and incentives. o Based on incentive values, we would be able to predict which
behaviours the person would express in order to reach the
highest valued incentive. (Value/Incentive)