CHAPTER 6 – MEMORY PROCESSES
LEVELS OF PROCESSING
- Does not assume different memory stores i.e. STM, LTM but rather focuses on the different kinds of cognitive
processing that people perform when they encode, and later retrieve information.
I. Long term memory Encoding
-Memorization / Repetition
-Maintain or hold information without transferring it into deeper code
-you’re not doing anything to go beyond the information
e.g.: repeating a phone number over again, you’ll be able to retrieve it 5 minutes later but two months later, you’ll not able to
retrieve the memory any more.
-Elaborate or go further/ to the meaning of the information; easier to retrieve even if it takes a long time
-transfer information into deeper code; e.g. learning a language, understanding or memorizing the word and its meaning
-Provides richer multimodal codes (form an image of the information)
-As you make memory more unique, the more it is easier to retrieve
-The more retrieval cues you make for that information, the easier for you to retrieve it later on
* not talking about transferring memory from short term memory to long term memory; hence talking about ways in which
memory store certain information
Craik and Tulving (1975) Levels-of-processing investigation
Assumption: We soon forget what we have not thought deeply about.
Process: Told participants to make different types of decisions about words and the Rs will measure how long it will take the Ps
to make decisions. Also to know what type of rehearsal is being used by the Ps during the Decision making.
Scenario 1: Is the word an upper case?
Scenario 2: Does this word rhyme with some other word?
Scenario 3: Does a particular word fit in a given sentence?
The Ps were not told that there will be a prior memory test later on. After studying a whole bunch of words, the Rs said that the
Ps must remember the words that they’ve studied. Result:
Scenario 1: SHALLOW LEVEL OF PROCESSING; Scenario 2: SHALLOW LEVEL OF PROCESSING; Scenario 3: DEEP LEVEL OF
PROCESSING (needs elaboration to be remembered)
*Latency: On the Y axis is the dependent measure, the response latency; measure of how long the Ps said yes or no to the
following words. Differences to verify the words in each category: Scenario 1 took lesser time to be remembered than scenarios
1 and 2.
*Recognition memory test: The correct words are given along with destructing and near words. e.g.: multiple choice questions.
Memory is better for sentence decision items than case and rhyme decision items. The deeper the memory, the better your
memory will be. Yes decision could probably lead to more elaborative processing. (It requires more thinking in answering yes
than answering No).
*It takes longer to say yes or no to the sentence scenario because it took the Ps longer to study the sentences.
Problem: It doesn’t have anything to do with the types of processing you do, it’s the fact that you spent time longer; which
leads to a follow up experiment to prove them wrong.
Follow up experiment:
*Makes shallow level difficult to do.
*The Rs ask the Ps if they the word follows the following pattern: consonant, consonant, vowel, consonant, vowel. In order to
answer, you have to think longer time, but this doesn’t mean you’re elaborating the words; instead you’re still using the
shallow level. But if you do the same thing with the deep level, you’ll get the same result. Meaning, it not just depends on the
Biggest criticism of the experiment: It is difficult to specify a priori (before you do the experiment) what type of processing will