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PSYCH 211 (210)


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University of Waterloo
Mathieu Le Corre

Intelligence How IQ used to be scored…  Compare child‟s score to scores of - younger children - children of same age  Score is “mental age”  IQ= mental age/chronological age x 100 - IQ < 100  MA < CA…  Today‟s intelligence tests cover a broad amount of information  Binet -> invented IQ test – found „typical‟ problems for every age group  The score you got was your mental age  Today IQ is scored differently:  Child‟s score on test = number of questions passed until reach level where fail multiple questions in a row  If you get IQ score of 100 at age 6, and 100 at age 18, doesn‟t mean you‟re any smarter at age 6, and also doesn‟t mean you‟re only able to define the same things you could at age 6 Do IQ tests work?  Are they reliable? Does the score stay constant over short-term? Long-term?  Are they valid? Do they really measure intelligence? Infant IQ – The Bayley Scales  Age range: 1-42months  Gives average developmental milestones for five different aspects of development or “scales”  Ex. Motor Scale  6 months: when an object hits the floor, baby turns head toward object  12 months: imitate experimenter‟s actions  16 months: build a tower from three blocks  Used to diagnose early developmental delays Reliability: Baby IQ Bayley Infant Scale:  Scores for 1-18 month-olds do not correlate with later IQ scores (no relationship)  Begin to see systematic results when using test on babies at 18 months on Habituation  Present stimulus: measure how long it takes until baby looks away  Take stimuli away and put it back on – measure again  Repeat until infant looking reaches “boredom” criterion  Time to habituate in 1-6month olds correlates highly with elementary school IQ Correlations:  Measure strength of association between two variables  Range from 1 to -1 Development of Emotions:  Do we experience all emotions from the beginning of life? – Focus: happiness, fear, sadness…  How do we learn to “read” other people‟s emotions Happiness, Fear, Sadness:  Known as “basic emotions”  Each basic emotion is a little package of a physiological reaction, a subjective experience, and overt behaviour  Facial expressions – most studied overt behaviour  Each basic emotion gets its own facial expression  Experienced worldwide Positive Emotions  Social smile appears at 2 or 3 months  Creates feedback loop of interaction  Evoked by human face  3-month olds prefer people to “talking fuzz ball”  7-month olds begin directing towards familiar people  Selective smiles delight parents  Encourage care and strengthen bond between parent and infant Negative Emotions  Newborn‟s reactions to hunger, pain, overstimulation are the same reaction  Claim: distress is initially undifferentiated Fear:  First expression: around 4 months in presence of unfamiliar objects, peopl
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