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Lecture 18

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University of Waterloo
Mattieu Lecorre

Lecture 18 Taking a step back: what Piaget & Kohlberg have in common - Development: long transition from deference to authority to authority-independent moral principles for ALL moral questions o Adult moral reasoning is very different from child moral reasoning - Both assume that moral judgements are the product of explicit, conscious moral reasoning o Justification reflects reasoning that leads to moral judgment o That’s why P&K gave more weight to justifications than to judgments - INCOMPLETE AT BEST o INCORRECT AT LEAST FOR SOME CASES Are all moral issues treated the same way? - Turiel (former Kohlberg collaborator): - No. o Questions of harm (Turiel calls these the “moral transgressions”  Kicking your younger brother while mom isn’t looking  Considered authority-independent o Social conventions  Eating green beans with your fingers  Considered authority-dependent o Personal preferences  Wearing your underpants inside out Testing the harm/norms distinction in children - “Harm” situation - “Conventional” situation Young Children distinguish harm from norms - Three year olds: hurting someone else is more wrong than not saying “please” when asking for something o It should get greater punishment - Four year olds: harming is wrong even if authority allows it. Transgressing norms is ok if authority allows it Remaining questions - How can we resolve the conflict between Piaget & Kohlberg and more recent research? o About unconscious vs. conscious moral reasoning  Possible resolution: perhaps that we use conscious, effortful moral reasoning when our intuitive, unconscious moral intuitions conflict with each other (eg. Theft vs. let die in Heinz dilemma)  Not a complete list! There may be others! o About radical developemental change vs. continuity over development:  Like conscious vs. unconscious, difference in development suggests that there are two separate systems  Often justifications of moral judgments don’t “fit” with judgments  Therefore, it’s possible that the basis of moral justifications is learned at least partially independently of unconscious moral intuitions Intelligence Three themes - Can intelligence be measured? o A look at the history of intelligence testing - Is there one or are there many intelligences? - Intelligence (whatever it is) seems to vary across individuals. What causes the variation? o Genes? o Parenting/schooling? o Culture? Intelligence research: a long (inbred) history of controversy & mathematical developments - Sir Francis Galton (England) o James Cattell (also with Wilhelm Wundt)  Clark Wissler (Barnard & Columbia) - Charles Spearman (England) o David Wechsler o Raymond Cattell (USA)  John Horn - John Carroll (USA) Sir Francis Galton (1822 – 1911) - Cousin of Charles Darwin - African explorer - Made first weather maps - Developed concept of “correlation” and “standard deviation” - Discovered uniqueness of fingerprints, convinced Scotland Yard to keep them on file - Fascinated by variatio
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