Taking a step back: what Piaget & Kohlberg have in common
- Development: long transition from deference to authority to authority-independent moral
principles for ALL moral questions
o Adult moral reasoning is very different from child moral reasoning
- Both assume that moral judgements are the product of explicit, conscious moral reasoning
o Justification reflects reasoning that leads to moral judgment
o That’s why P&K gave more weight to justifications than to judgments
- INCOMPLETE AT BEST
o INCORRECT AT LEAST FOR SOME CASES
Are all moral issues treated the same way?
- Turiel (former Kohlberg collaborator):
o Questions of harm (Turiel calls these the “moral transgressions”
Kicking your younger brother while mom isn’t looking
o Social conventions
Eating green beans with your fingers
o Personal preferences
Wearing your underpants inside out
Testing the harm/norms distinction in children
- “Harm” situation
- “Conventional” situation
Young Children distinguish harm from norms
- Three year olds: hurting someone else is more wrong than not saying “please” when asking for
o It should get greater punishment
- Four year olds: harming is wrong even if authority allows it. Transgressing norms is ok if
authority allows it
- How can we resolve the conflict between Piaget & Kohlberg and more recent research?
o About unconscious vs. conscious moral reasoning Possible resolution: perhaps that we use conscious, effortful moral reasoning
when our intuitive, unconscious moral intuitions conflict with each other (eg.
Theft vs. let die in Heinz dilemma)
Not a complete list! There may be others!
o About radical developemental change vs. continuity over development:
Like conscious vs. unconscious, difference in development suggests that there
are two separate systems
Often justifications of moral judgments don’t “fit” with judgments
Therefore, it’s possible that the basis of moral justifications is learned at least
partially independently of unconscious moral intuitions
- Can intelligence be measured?
o A look at the history of intelligence testing
- Is there one or are there many intelligences?
- Intelligence (whatever it is) seems to vary across individuals. What causes the variation?
Intelligence research: a long (inbred) history of controversy & mathematical developments
- Sir Francis Galton (England)
o James Cattell (also with Wilhelm Wundt)
Clark Wissler (Barnard & Columbia)
- Charles Spearman (England)
o David Wechsler
o Raymond Cattell (USA)
- John Carroll (USA)
Sir Francis Galton (1822 – 1911)
- Cousin of Charles Darwin
- African explorer
- Made first weather maps
- Developed concept of “correlation” and “standard deviation”
- Discovered uniqueness of fingerprints, convinced Scotland Yard to keep them on file
- Fascinated by variatio