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Chapter 12 Textbook Notes Detailed and very organized textbook notes for Chapter 12, includes bolded definitions. Notes taken from "Infants and Children" by Laura E. Berk. Applies to the 6th and 7th editions. Happy studying! :)

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Tom Ruttan

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Chapter 12Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood Piagets Theory The Concrete Operational Stage Achievements of the Concrete Operational Stage o Concrete operational stage o Piagets third stage711 yrs old o Thought becomes flexible logical and organized in its application to concrete info Conservation o Conservation tasks provide evidence of operationsmental actions that obey logical rules o Capable of decentration o The ability to focus on several aspects of a problem at once and relate them o Also of reversibility o Ability to go through a series of steps and then mentally reverse direction returning to the starting point Classification o Children pass the class inclusion problemflower example o More aware of classification hierarchies and can focus on relations between a general category and two specific categories at the same time o Collections therefore become common Seriation o Ability to order items along a quantitative dimension such as length or weight o Exto arrange sticks of different lengths o Can also seriate mentally o This is known as transitive inference o Requires children to integrate three relations at once Spatial reasoning o Directions o Mental rotations o Can identify left and right positions they do not occupy o Maps o Cognitive mapsMental representations of familiar largescale spaces such as school or neighborhoodPreschoolers include landmarks but there are not always accurate also have difficulty if map is rotated o Schoolage kids draw an organized route of travel o Grasp the notion of scales o Cultural frameworks influence childrens map makingIndian children represented a rich array of landmarks and aspects of social lifeAmericans drew a more formal extended space but with few landmarks Limitations of Concrete Operational Thought o LimitationChildren think in an organized logical fashion only when dealing with concrete information that they can perceive directly o Work poorly with abstract ideas o Continuum of acquisition of logical concepts is another indication of the limitations of concrete operational thinking o Children seem to work out the logic of each problem separately FollowUp Research on Concrete Operational Thought o Specific cultural and school practices have much to do with mastery of Piagetian tasks Impact of Culture and Schooling o Very experience of going to school seems to promote mastery of Piagetian tasks o Those in school longer do better on transitive inference problems o 69 yr old street vendors do poorly on class inclusion tasks but perform much better with version relevant to street vending o Forms of logic required by tasks do not emerge spontaneously in children but rather are heavily influenced by training context and cultural conditions An InformationProcessing View of Concrete Operational Thought o Some neoPiagetian theorists say gains in infoprocessing speed rather than a sudden shift to a new stage is what occurs o With practice cognitive schemes demand less attention and become more automatic freeing up space in working memory o There is then enough memory available for the child to integrate schemes to an improved representationo Preschoolers focus on 1D and by early school years 2D at about 911 they focus on multiple dimensions o Different forms of same logical insight vary in their processing demands o Also childrens experiences vary widely o Therefore central conceptual structures also vary o Cases theory better accounts for unevenness in cognitive development o When tasks make similar processing demands children with relevant experiences master those tasks at about the same time
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