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PSYCH 253 (142)

Social Psych - Chapter 12

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Omid Fotuhi

Chapter 12 – Prejudice: Disliking Others Nature and Power of Prejudice - Prejudice: a negative prejudgment of a group and its individual members, an attitude - Stereotype: a belief about the personal attributes of a group of people o May be accurate or inaccurate, positive or negative o Overgeneralizing can become dangerous - Discrimination: negative behavior often caused by prejudiced attitudes - Racism: prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior toward people of a certain race o Or institutional practices that subordinate people of a given race - Sexism: prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior toward people of a given sex o Or institutional practices that subordinate people of a given sex - Overt prejudice has decreased significantly however subtle prejudice is still widespread o Prejudiced attitudes and discriminatory behavior surface when they can hide behind a screen of some other motive - Automatic prejudice, primitive regions of brain, amygdala - Overt Prejudice, conscious thinking, frontal cortex Social Sources of Prejudice - Gender Role: set of behavior expectations for males and females o Women do housework, men work with production o Women more agreeable, men more outgoing - Strong gender stereotyping exists, and members of the groups accept the stereotypes - Unequal status breeds prejudice - Stereotypes rationalize unequal status - Prejudice greatest in regions where slavery is practiced - Social dominance orientation: motivation to have one’s group be dominant over other social groups o Tend to view groups in hierarchies - Ethnocentric: believing in superiority of one’s own ethnic and cultural group - Hostile prejudice: subjectively negative attitudes - Benevolent prejudice: subjectively positive attitudes - Authoritarian principles more common in ethnocentric more judgmental people o Obedience and respect for authority are the most important virtues children should learn is a common thinking among these people o Often faced harsh discipline as children, bottling up hostility, and projecting them onto outgroups o Authoritarian tendencies surge during times of economic recession - Different forms of prejudice are common to occur in the same individuals - Religion o Faithful church members LESS prejudiced than occasional attenders o People who believe religion is an end in itself are LESS prejudiced than those that believe religion is a means to an end o Protestant ministers and catholic priests give more support to human rights than laypeople - Conformity increases prejudice, if it is socially accepted - If prejudice is not ingrained in personality, than as fashion and norms change, prejudice an disappear Motivational Sources of Prejudice - When cause of frustration is intimidating or vague, people often redirect their hostility - Realistic group conflict theory: prejudice arises from competition between groups for scarce resources o When two groups compete, one groups fulfillment is another’s frustration - Social identity: the “we” aspect of our self-concept, coming from our groups o Respect for ourselves, pride in our groups - As social characters o We categorize: place people into groups o Identify: associate ourselves with certain groups and gain self-esteem (ingroups) o Compare: contrast our groups with other groups (outgroups) wit bias to our own - Ingroup Bias: tendency to favor one’s own group - Increased ingroup bias when our group is smaller or lower in status - Thinking about one’s mortality provokes insecurity and intensifies ingroup favouritism - When self-esteem is lowered, people will try to restore it by denigrating an outgroup -
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