Alcohol- barenaked ladies
1. Health and Control – greater sense of control, healthier
*C1: Executive rat – can stop the shock
*C2: Subordinate Rat - can’t do anything to stop the shock
*C3: Control Rat
*Control gets more
*Subordinate gets the disease more often
*Executive, as long as it can stop the shot, he can’t get diseases
Singer and Glass Studies
*Had people experience blasts of noise
*C1: sit and listen to the noise
*C2: gave the Ps switch on the wall; they were told that they can stop the noise when they
can shut it properly
*C2, when they believed that they can control the noise, they could have less disease
Learned Helplessness and Depression – when people learned that they don’t have control
in their environment, they’ll get depressed
*dogs couldn’t do anything to escape the shots
*whenever you have negative things in your life, it will lead to depression when you
have an internal attribution and make it stable, then make it global; e.g.: I failed the test
because I’m stupid, I’m a moron and I can’t do anything right and this will ruin everything in
Control and health Outcomes
-Rodin and Langer – Control in the Nursing Home (old people)
*C1: give them a greater sense of control; brought them a plant and they got to be in
charge to take care of the plant (treatment)
*C2: vote on what activity they must do on a daily basis (control condition)
*How happy people were with this sense of control?
*Those people who received the sense of control make them even happier.
*Rs went back to the nursing home yrs after. How many people died and lived longer
after the experiment?
*Treatment: 15% of people died, Control: 30% died; in average treatment lives 1.2 yrs
longer than control.
*You could be happier if you have a better sense of control.
Optimism and Health
-Taylor and Brown
*Optimism has a significant correlation with health*
Importance of Value Systems and meaning
-McIntosh, Silver, and Wortman , 1992
*Parents that have a child that died (sudden death syndrome)
*Some people recovered very quickly
-gained sense of meaning from the event quickly
*Others took those couple of years -hoe you make sense of meaning in the event and able to understand it and put
it to perspective
*Others never got over
-aren’t able to gain sense of meaning
2. Health and Stress
Seyles’s General Adaptation Syndrome
*Change in the environment is what makes us stressful.
What makes something stressful? How we appraise or perceive a situation is critical.
Major crises – is change bad or does it has to be negative?
*Early Theories – any change is bad
*Social Readjustment Scale
*Leading stress: Marriage, New Job (they could lead to positive aspects too)*
*Recent research in cognitive appraisals – suggests that negative change is what is bad
*How you view it as threat or a challenge is what matters. If you can’t handle it, it’s
*When you perceive something that you can handle, perceive it as a challenge, your
blood vessels opens up and lets the flow of blood on the body. Challenge reaction is
*When you perceive something that you can’t handle (perceive it as a threat), you blood
vessels conscript, it’s harder for the blood to pass through the organs, bad reaction;
heart blood; heart disease.
Daily Hassles – leads to more effect to illness
*Dorm and illness
*put more people in the same room, they got sick more than studnets who has their
*e.g.: conflicts with the roommates who don’t do dishes.
*bring up stress more in people’s life.
3. Models of Depression
Pennebaker’s Theory of Inhibition and Confrontation
*When people write about their struggles, they did better in life.
*Inhibition can create stress -If you’re not thinking of your problems, it could lead to stress.
Means you can’t handle it
*Inhibition inhibits finding meaning in the event
*Confrontation reverses this pattern- when Ps write about problems, they won’t inhibit it and
lead to better coping up.
Nolen-Hoeksma’s Self-Focus Model of Depression – when people have negative moods, the
more they focus on themselves.
*Negative mood leads to self-focus
*Self-focus increases negative mood *Hence a viscous circle
*Suggests that distraction may be helpful – not think about in the sense that it would work by
actively distracting yourself.
*SOLUTIONS: 1.) Write about it and think about it. 2.) not think about in the sense that it would
work by actively distracting yourself.
* People who feel depressed tend to think negatively.
* Depressive realism – the tendency of mildly depressed people to make accurate rather than
self-serving judgments, attributions, and predictions. “Sadder but wiser effect”
*Explanatory style – one’s habitual way of explaining life events. A negative, pessimistic,
depressive explanatory style attributes failures to stable, global, and internal causes.
*Depressed Moods cause negative thinking – Moods modify memory. Depressive explanatory
style is linked with a negative, pessimistic way of explaining and interpreting failures. A