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Psych 253 HEALTH

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Steve Spencer

HEALTH Alcohol- barenaked ladies 1. Health and Control – greater sense of control, healthier  Executive Rats *C1: Executive rat – can stop the shock *C2: Subordinate Rat - can’t do anything to stop the shock *C3: Control Rat *Control gets more *Subordinate gets the disease more often *Executive, as long as it can stop the shot, he can’t get diseases  Singer and Glass Studies *Had people experience blasts of noise *C1: sit and listen to the noise *C2: gave the Ps switch on the wall; they were told that they can stop the noise when they can shut it properly *C2, when they believed that they can control the noise, they could have less disease  Learned Helplessness and Depression – when people learned that they don’t have control in their environment, they’ll get depressed -Original Model *dogs couldn’t do anything to escape the shots -Reformulated Model *whenever you have negative things in your life, it will lead to depression when you have an internal attribution and make it stable, then make it global; e.g.: I failed the test because I’m stupid, I’m a moron and I can’t do anything right and this will ruin everything in my life.  Control and health Outcomes -Rodin and Langer – Control in the Nursing Home (old people) *C1: give them a greater sense of control; brought them a plant and they got to be in charge to take care of the plant (treatment) *C2: vote on what activity they must do on a daily basis (control condition) *How happy people were with this sense of control? *Those people who received the sense of control make them even happier. *Rs went back to the nursing home yrs after. How many people died and lived longer after the experiment? *Treatment: 15% of people died, Control: 30% died; in average treatment lives 1.2 yrs longer than control. *You could be happier if you have a better sense of control.  Optimism and Health -Taylor and Brown *Optimism has a significant correlation with health*  Importance of Value Systems and meaning -McIntosh, Silver, and Wortman , 1992 *Parents that have a child that died (sudden death syndrome) *Some people recovered very quickly -gained sense of meaning from the event quickly *Others took those couple of years -hoe you make sense of meaning in the event and able to understand it and put it to perspective *Others never got over -aren’t able to gain sense of meaning 2. Health and Stress  Seyles’s General Adaptation Syndrome *Change in the environment is what makes us stressful.  What makes something stressful? How we appraise or perceive a situation is critical.  Major crises – is change bad or does it has to be negative? *Early Theories – any change is bad *Social Readjustment Scale *Leading stress: Marriage, New Job (they could lead to positive aspects too)* *Recent research in cognitive appraisals – suggests that negative change is what is bad *How you view it as threat or a challenge is what matters. If you can’t handle it, it’s stressful. *When you perceive something that you can handle, perceive it as a challenge, your blood vessels opens up and lets the flow of blood on the body. Challenge reaction is healthy. *When you perceive something that you can’t handle (perceive it as a threat), you blood vessels conscript, it’s harder for the blood to pass through the organs, bad reaction; heart blood; heart disease.  Daily Hassles – leads to more effect to illness *Dorm and illness *put more people in the same room, they got sick more than studnets who has their own rooms. *Interpersonal Conflict *e.g.: conflicts with the roommates who don’t do dishes. *bring up stress more in people’s life. 3. Models of Depression  Pennebaker’s Theory of Inhibition and Confrontation *When people write about their struggles, they did better in life. *Inhibition can create stress -If you’re not thinking of your problems, it could lead to stress. Means you can’t handle it *Inhibition inhibits finding meaning in the event *Confrontation reverses this pattern- when Ps write about problems, they won’t inhibit it and lead to better coping up.  Nolen-Hoeksma’s Self-Focus Model of Depression – when people have negative moods, the more they focus on themselves. *Negative mood leads to self-focus *Self-focus increases negative mood *Hence a viscous circle *Suggests that distraction may be helpful – not think about in the sense that it would work by actively distracting yourself. *SOLUTIONS: 1.) Write about it and think about it. 2.) not think about in the sense that it would work by actively distracting yourself. * DEPRESSION * People who feel depressed tend to think negatively. * Depressive realism – the tendency of mildly depressed people to make accurate rather than self-serving judgments, attributions, and predictions. “Sadder but wiser effect” *Explanatory style – one’s habitual way of explaining life events. A negative, pessimistic, depressive explanatory style attributes failures to stable, global, and internal causes. *Depressed Moods cause negative thinking – Moods modify memory. Depressive explanatory style is linked with a negative, pessimistic way of explaining and interpreting failures. A
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