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Helping Others - March 18 2013.docx

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Hilary B Bergsieker

March 18 2013 PSYCH253 – Altruism: Helping Others Prosocial Behaviour - Helping that benefits another person - May also benefit self and be done for that reason Altruism - Helping in response to another’s need - Done regardless of benefit to self Why do people help? - Social – exchange Theory o Emphasizes rewards for helping o Evolutionary theory also stresses genetic award (by sacrificing, someone sharing your gene will be more likely to do the same) o Rewards  Increase likelihood of return help  Relieve personal distress  Gain social approval from others o Costs  Put self in physical danger  Consumes time  Requires energy - Empathy- Altruism Hypothesis o Based on genuine concern for others’ well- being o When we feel empathy for another, will help purely for altruistic reasons, regardless of gain o We want to relieve their pain by adopting their perspective Helping: Empathy and Costs - Ps tod about Carol marchy o Car accident, behind in school - IV: #1 : Empathy o ½ high: take her perspective o ½ low: be objective - IV #2 : Cost of not helping o ½ low: won’t see her in class o ½ high: will see her in class - DV: Would you help her catch up with her work? - Would think that empathy would pay a bigger part - Low empathy, low cost = help least - Low empathy, high cost = would be the same as high empathy and low cost/ high cost - Charlize Theron helping, if someone collapse and she is only one around, she will be more likely to help Bystander (Non) – Intervention Model - When inaction becomes a problem - Don’t want to take responsibility - Someone else will do it Intervening in an Emergency - Notice the Event - Interpret as Emergency - Assume Responsibility - Know how to help - Implement Situational Ambiguity: An Emergency? - Informational influence: We watch behavior of others to help us define ambiguous situations - Pluralistic ignorance: Amid passive bystanders, each person assumes others are not acting because they see situation as non-emergency o Q: “ Is this an emergency?” o A: “Well no one else seems to be doing anything, so I guess it isn’t an emergency?” - Anti- Staring norms also interfere, it is weird when other people stare so when no one is looking, they don’t notice Smoke Study - Smoke poured into a room as P completed a survey - IV: Presence of others o P alone o P and 2 passive confederates o Ps in group of 3 - DV: % Repo
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