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Lecture 12

Lecture 12 & 13: Chapter 11 - Attraction/Intimacy Very detailed lecture notes, including explanations of all in-class exercises AND video clips used during lecture.

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Emiko Yoshida

Chapter 11 Attraction and Intimacy I: Liking and Loving Others In-Class Exercise Which face is most attractive? Mystery: Charlotte and Harry Clip Sex and the City Charlotte dumps perfect guy because she still loves Harry bald guy Why were they attracted to each other? Evolutionary theory Harry is a lawyer (high social status and income), Charlotte is young and attractive Need to Belong Humans are social in nature Fundamental human need to belong to a group Evolutionarily adaptive big group of people can hunt big animals, build shelter, increase chance of survival Ostracism is painful because need to belong is so fundamental Hard-wired brain processes social pain the same as physical pain Clip 2 confederates leaving out a participant (in game, or conversation) shows actual physical upset (stress) because of it Ostracism in the Lab Researchers use cyberball participant plays a computer game with two others, eventually they are completely excluded from the game Feels like physical pain Ostracism as physical pain Physical pain alerts us to physical injury, leads us to attend to injury Social pain alerts us to injury to social connections, leads us to restore social connections When excluded from group, how do you restore a sense of belonging? Conformity accommodating to group standards increases a chance of acceptance, (to restore sense of belonging) Study of conformity o 2 conditions: 1. Inclusion condition: received ball for 1/3 of throws 2. Exclusion condition: did not receive the ball o Then group perception task (a new group) told that this study did not have anything to do with last study o Identify a correct figure with 5 other participants who respond first o At the beginning, confederates would pick right figure, than they would all pick the same wrong one o DV: giving wrong answer when they know its wrong o Also a control group who did not participate in cyberball at all o People who were excluded were more likely to conform, no difference between included peole and control group o Social exclusion increased conformity Other reactions of social exclusion: Chapter 11 Underperformance on an aptitude test (because supressing negative emotions of ostracism takes a lot of cognitive resources Decrease self-regulation (ex. binge eating) Increase aggression (ex. school shooting) What Leads to Friendship and Attraction? Proximity Proximity breeds liking (ex. classmates, roommates) Why? Availability low cost for interaction Mere exposure effect when people are exposed to something a lot, they tend to like it o Study Moreland & Beach, 1992 o Female confederates sat in on a college class o Frequency of visits: 0, 5, 10, or 15 times during the semester o DV: evaluate how much they like the confederate o The more the people were exposed to the confederate, the more people liked her o Mere exposure effect is hard-wired o People tend to categorize things outside their awareness - familiar stimulus is safe; unfamiliar stimulus may be dangerous o Stronger when people are not aware of the stimulus Evolutionary Theory and Physical Attractiveness Behaviour is shaped to increase chances of survival as a species or as individuals Gender differences in mate selection are based on biological differences Ex. men seek fertile (young, healthy) women because mens main task is to pass their genes on to the next generation Ex. women seek wealthy (high social status) men because women must make sure that their offspring will survive Clip Seinfeld Jerry and Elaine trying to set up George and Cynthia The fix-up: man asks about body, personality, intelligence, career; woman asks/talks about career, personality, looks George asks about looks/beauty first, Cynthia asks about his career Support for the evolutionary theory: 1. Signs of youth and health o Physical attractiveness o Hair length and quality is associated with youth and health o Study physical attractiveness in females Male undergrads rated womens faces Combination of baby face adn signs of maturity was perceived attractive Look feminine and youthful, not too childish Ex. baby face large eyes, small nose, large lips (ex. Ellen Page) Ex. maturity features high eyebrows, large smile, prominent cheekbones (ex. Julia Roberts) Comination of baby face and maturity: Men preferred to date Men showed sexual interests Perceived as less likely of medical problemsChapter 11 Perceived as liking to raise children 2. Signs of healthy genes o Average faces are perceived as attractive o Bilateral symmetry is seen as unattractive o Average has: development under ideal condition, absence of mutation, pathogens or stressors in the womb, less likely to contain genetic abnormalities o Average faces tend to look familiar which people tend to like more o Study attractiveness of other races Do people perceive faces of other races attractive? Caucasian and Asian participants rated male and female average faces (composite faces) a. Caucasian faces b. Asian faces c. Combination of the two Results people rated the combination of Asian and Caucasian as most attractive Combination of Asian and Caucasian together represents the total average of all faces seen Combination was perceived as healthier than Caucasian or Asian average faces alone 3. Signs of reproductive potential o Standard of attractiveness has changed throughout time o However the waist-to-hip ratio has not changed over time o Low waist-to-hip ratios is associated with reproductive success o Married women with higher ratio reporte
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