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Lecture

CHAPTER 8 PSYCH 257

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 257
Professor
Uzma Rehman
Semester
Winter

Description
CHAPTER 8: EATING DISODERS EATING DISORDERS: AN OVERVIEW  Two Major Types of Eating Disorders  Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa  Both involve severe disruptions in eating behavior  Both involve extreme fear and apprehension about gaining weight  Both have strong sociocultural origins  Highest rate of eating disorders comes from white middle class families (average profile)  African ladies  Women has a higher rate than men  Diagnosis under consideration:  Binge-eating disorder BULIMIA NERVOSA  Binge Eating – Hallmark of Bulimia  Binge – eating excess amounts of food  Eating is perceived as uncontrollable  Compensatory Behaviours  Purging – self-induced vomiting, diuretics, laxatives  Some exercise excessively, whereas others fast Two subtypes of Bulimia Nervosa  Purging Type During the current episode of bulimia nervosa, the person has regularly engaged in self induced vomiting or the misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or enemas.  Non Purging Type During the current episode of bulimia nervosa, the person has used other inappropriate compensatory behaviours, such as fasting or excessive exercise, but has not regularly engaged in self-induced vomiting or the misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or enemas. Signs and symptoms  Mouth sores  Pharyngeal trauma  Dental caries  Heartburn, chest pain  Esophageal rupture  Fainting  Swollen salivary glands  Muscle cramps  Weakness  Bloody diarrhea  Bleeding or easy bruising  Irregular periods Bulimia Nervosa: Overview and defining features  Associated Features  Most are within 10% of target body weight  Most are over concerned with body shape, fear gaining weight  Most are comorbid for other psychological disorders  Purging methods can result in severe medical problems *GRAPH: there’s a real socio-cultural component in these disorders- there maybe a kind of genetic predisposition ANOREXIA NERVOSA  Weight Loss – Hallmark of Anorexia  Defined as 15% below expected weight  Intense fear of obesity and losing control over eating  Anorexics show a relentless pursuit of thinness, often beginning with dieting  Electrolyte imbalance*  Associated Features  Most show marked disturbance in body image  Most are comorbid for other psychological disorders (i.e. depressive disorders)  Methods of weight loss can have severe life threatening medical consequences Two types of Anorexia Nervosa  Restricting Type during the current episode of anorexia nervosa, the person has not regularly engaged in binge eating or purging behavior.  Binge-Eating/Purging Type During the current episode of anorexia nervosa, the person has regularly engaged in binge eating or purging behavior. Signs and Symptoms  Dry skin  Cold intolerance  Blue hands and feet  Constipation  Bloating  Delayed puberty  Primary or secondary amenorrhea  Nerve compression  Fainting  Orthostatic hypotension  Lanugo hair  Scalp hair loss  Early satiety  Weakness, fatigue  Short stature  Osteopenia  Breast atrophy  Cardiac murmurs  Sinus brady  Hypothermia Binge Eating Disorder  Binge-Eating Disorder – Appendix of DSM-IV  Experimental diagnostic category  Engage in food binges, but do not engage in compensatory behaviors  Associated Features  Many persons with binge-eating disorder are obese  Most are older than bulimics and anorexics  Share similar concerns as anorexics and bulimics regarding shape and weight BULIMEA AND ANOREXIA: FACTS AND STATISTICS  Bulimia  Majority are female, with onset around 16 to 19 years of age  Lifetime prevalence is about 1.1% for females, 0.1% for males  6-8% of college women suffer from bulimia  Tends to be chronic if left untreated  Anorexia  Majority are female and white, from middle-to-upper middle class families  Usually develops around age 13 or early adolescence  Tends to be more chronic and resistant to treatment than bulimia CAUSES OF BULEMIA AND ANOREXIA: TOWARD AN INTEGRATIVE MODEL  Media and Cultural Considerations  Being thin = Success, happiness....really?  Cultural imperative for thinness translates into dieting  Standards of ideal body size change as much as clothes  With improve
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