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Psych 257 Chap 5 Psych 257 Psychopathology Barlow et Al: Abnormal Psychology 2nd CDN edition Chapter 5

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Uzma Rehman

Anxiety Disorders anxiety specific disorder Panic fear that occurs as an inappropriate time Anxiety Fear And Panic Anxiety negative mood state bodily symptoms of physical tensionapprehension of future eg fidgeting trembling high heart rate muscle tension usu doesnt go away despite reassurance etc fear immediate alarm reaction to danger strong escapist action tendencies panic attack abrupt intense feardiscomfort heart palpitations chest pain shortness of breath3 types situationally bound cued unexpected uncued and situationally predisposed Causes biological contributions inherit tendency to be tense uptight eg depleted levels of GABA anxietybehavioural inhibition system unexpected signals from brain stem of danger freezeanxiety and evaluate situation to confirm danger is presentfightflight systemFFS alarm and escape response possibly due to serotonin deficienciesenvironmental factors change sensitivity to these circuits psychological contributions eg childhood parents can foster childs sense of control prevent anxietysecure home base positive predictable parental reactions ability to explore their world social contributions stressful life events can trigger biopsych vulnerabilities to anxietyreaction to stress linked to family eg panic attacks can be familial an integrated perspective can be biologically vulnerable to anxiety wo having it stressors can activatepanic familial patterns reactions associated to certain cues anxietypanic can occur together Comorbidity of Anxiety Disorders cooccurrence of 2 disorders high rates of comorbidity among anxiety disorders and depression most common additional diagnosis is major depression Panic Disorder with and without Agoraphobia PDA severe unexpected panic attacks that lead to fear of leaving homeClinical Description anxietypanicphobic avoidance must experience unexpected PAanxiety over additional ones panic disorder without agoraphobia PD see attacks as sign of impending deathincapacitation development of agoraphobia PA makes one want to stay in safe place in case of a second one can still have agoraphobia wo having a panic attack for years thus method of coping w PAs some w agoraphobia go outside but experience major distress while doing so interoceptive avoidance avoid physiological arousal thats similar to PAs eg exercising Statistics rd35 of pop 23 womenhigher in more severe cases onset in early adult life 1540yrs lower in men possibly due to cultural disapproval cope via alcohol use Cultural Influences panic disorder exists worldwide diff in prevalence somatic symptoms emphasized in dev Countries Nocturnal Panic no PA with nightmare caused by transition to delta slowwave sleep letting goisolated sleep paralysis caused by REM sleep lack of body movement spilling into waking suicide 20 of PA attempt it more when assocd with mood disorder but less if no comorbidity Causes bio inherit vulnerability to stress that creates unexpected PA partly heritable psych must be susceptible to developing anxiety over possibility of another PAanxiety sensitivity index examine psych vulnerability to panic disorder
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