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Richard Eibach

PSYCH 291-001 LEC #10 Thursday, October 10, 2013 Construct Validity - Elaborate, ongoing process  no clear singular test  involves multiple tests to weigh the evidence against a measure - Construct validity- simultaneously tests the theory of the construct and the validity of the measure by assessing how the measure relates to other theory relevant constructs and criteria o Rather than assessing a single gold standard criterion this approach tests a network of predictions derived from the theory of the construct o The accumulation of successful predictions involving the measure and phenotypically diverse observations, enhance confidence in the validity of the construct  More diverse related outcomes  the more confident I am that the measure has validity! o When a measure does not perform as the theory predicts this could suggest a fault in the measure of a fault in the theory.  E.g., Theory of self-esteem originally predicted that students in high ability of schools would have higher SE thus those in lower ability schools, but the reverse was found- led to theory revision.  Results: Students on average in the lower ability schools tended to have higher SE  Recognized that SE might not have to do anything with the absolute outcomes  it’s a problematic assumptions o How you’re performing relatively to the local others  Lower ability schools are going to be perform better relative to their environment  Since performance is higher in high ability schools, students will be performing lower and therefore deflate SE  Revised theory of SE as relative  E.g., Found that self-report measures of attitudes often failed to predict attitude- relevant behaviors –led to development implicit attitude measures  Found very little correlation in their self-reported attitudes and their attitude relevant behaviors  Failure to consistency in their racial attitudes and their actual racial attitudes that they exhibited. o Uncomfortable to admitting to their prejudices  Average attitude behaviour correlation is expectedly low  0.2-0.4  Led to a potential insight that there might be a problem in the self-report measures o Measure people’s attitude more implicitly  in ways that people are unable to consciously control  would be a better predictor in attitudes. o Known group validation- When theory predicts that defined groups ought to differ by systematically in levels of the construct being tested then these group’s average scores should differ in the predicted way on the measure of that construct. o The convergent validity principle- other measures that are theoretically related to the construct that is being measured ought to correlate well with that measure  Example: If you theory says SE ought to predict relationship satisfaction  then you can measure both of those things and see if those two things are correlated. o The discriminant validity principle- other measures that are not theoretically related to the construct being measured ought to not correlate with their measure  Example: Attitude measures  want it to be about personal preferences and values  we don’t want them to be people’s IQ  If attitude measures correlate with IQ possible contaminant  change the measure in ways to get a purer measure Validating the RWA Scale - Known group validation- o Winnipeg legislature: Tory’s politicians’ average RWA scores 2x as high as that of NDP predictions with no overlap in distribution of scores  Conservative politicians are twice as high in their average RWA scores  Highest NDP scores is lower than the lowest Conservative politicians scores.  Single results from a single test is not enough  only measuring conventionalism o Orthodox Jews > traditional Jews > secular Jews  Differ in their levels of conservatism in religious values  Expected that RWA Scores will vary  However, not sufficient evidence! - Convergent validity- o RWA significantly positively correlates with other measures of right-wing political orientation including: conservatism scales, Social Dominance Orientations o RWA significantly positively correlates with traditionalism in religious and social values: Christian orthodoxy scale, traditional sex rule scales  Traditional Sex Rules  Men have certain roles that are better suited for their sex  Traditional sex role values tends to be higher in RWA o RWA significantly positively correlates with various measures of prejudice: ethnocentrism / racism scales: negative attitudes towards: Jews, homosexuals, blacks, and Hispanics; rape myth acceptance scale  Rape myth  myth that women forced to have sex actually want to have sex - Discriminant Validity- o RWA scores not significantly correlated with a variety of psychological measures including:  IQ  SE  Psychiatric symptoms  Not tapping into psychological delusional states  Self-disclosure  Self-consciousness  Self-deception  Loneliness Other evidence of RWA scale’s construct validity - How well does your measure do as the theory advances? - Not explicitly trying to validate the scale - Looking at other studies involved with your measure - Authoritarian Aggression o Measure of behavioral tendencies towards violence in authority sanction targets o RWA predicts: punitive attitudes toward criminals; amount of shock delivered to a learner as punishment for erroneous responses o Imagine that government is encouraging suppressive of minority groups  would you take advantage?  Researcher came up with the Posse scale  Radicals  outliers of the group  trying to change their societies  Authoritarians will have attitudes towards these radicals since they are harming the conventionalism of their societies.  Significant correlation: The higher your RWA scores  the more you are likely to “gang up” on radicals Global Change Game - Developed by Ultemyer’s son. - Developed an intervention to get students to think about global issues and to develop skills in thinking about and negotiating others with global problems - Involves taking a class of students and dividing them into countries (Regions of the world) - Course of the intervention: Representatives of these regions must solve collective problems (E.g., Refugee crisis, tensions in war in societies)  must negotiate with others to get through these crisis When fascists rule the world… - Ultemyer administered the Global Change Game - Not a rigorous test - Just a single observation between Low RWA and High RWA - Evidence as
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