Class Notes (1,000,000)
CA (620,000)
UW (20,000)
PSYCH (2,000)
PSYCH101 (800)

PSYCH101 Lecture Notes - Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Panic Disorder

Course Code
Richard Ennis

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 13 pages of the document.
Psychology - Disorders And Therapy
Chapters 47-51
Chapter 47- Introduction to Psychological Disorders
- at various moments, all of us think, act and feel the way disturbed people do much of the time.
We to get anxious, depressed.
- “To study the abnormal is the best way of understand the normal”
- WHO reports that, worldwide, 450 million people suffer from mental or behavioral disorders,
and accounts for 15.4% of the YLL due to disability or disorder, scoring below CVD and above
- Mental health workers view psychological disorders as patterns of thoughts, feelings or actions
that are deviant, distressful and dysfunctional
- being different (deviant) from most people in ones culture is a part if what it takes to define a
psych disorder, standards for deviant behavior vary by context and by culture
- ie, war time mass killing, hearing voices in their head
- standards also very with time, homosexuality was once view as a pscyh disorder, how ever now
the American Psychiatric Association has dropped homosexuality as a disorder
- there is more to a disorder than being deviant, this behavior also causes them to be distressed.
- dysfunction is key to defining a disorder
- an intense fear of spiders may be deviant, but if it dosent impair your life its not a
Psychological Disorder: deviant, distressful and dysfunctional patters of thoughts, feelings or
Medical Model: the concept that diseases in this case psychological disorders, have physical
causes that can be diagnosed, treated and in most cases, cured. often in a hospital.
- in earlier times people believed that puzzling behavior was the work of evil spirits or god-like
- rid the evil by exorcising the demon
- in other times “mad” people were cages like zoo animals, castration, burnings and beatings,
pulling teeth, giving transfusions with animal blood
- in opposition to brutal treatment Philippe Pinel insisted that madness is not a demon possession
but a sickness of the mind caused by severe stresses and inhumane conditions
- Pinel’s moral treatment included unchaining them and talking with them, replacing brutality
with gentleness, often did not cure patients
- 1800’s the discovery of syphilis infects the brain and drove further gradual reform. from here
hospitals replaced asylums and began to search for physical causes and treatments for
Today the medical model “mental health movement”: a mental illness needs to be diagnosed on
the basis of its symptoms and treated through therapy, may include time in psychiatric hospital

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

- recent discoveries that genetically influenced abnormalities in brian structure and biochemistry
contribute to many disorders
- all behavior whether normal or disordered, arise from the interactions of nature ( genetic and
psychological factors) and nurture (past and present experiences)
- evidence of such effects comes from links btwn specific disorders and cultures
- cultures differ in their sources of stress and they produce different ways of coping
- anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa occur mostly in Western cultures
- disorders may share an underlying dynamic (anxiety) while differing in the symptoms (an
eating problem) manifested in a particular culture.
- not all disorders are culture bound. ex, depression and schizophrenia occur world wide
- influences: genetic predisposition, physiological states, inner psychological dynamics , social
and cultural circumstances- the biopsycho-social model helps, it recognizes that mind and
body are inseparable
- (-) emotions contribute to physical illness and physical abnormalities contribute to (-) emotions
The biopsychosocial approach to psychological disorders
Biological influences:
- evolution, individual genes, brain structure and chemistry
Psychological influences:
- stress, trauma, learned helplessness, mood related perception and memories
Social cultural influences:
- roles, expectations, definitions of normal and disorder
- all of these influences can lead to psychological disorders or at least contribute to them
Classifying Psychological Disorders
- in biology, classification creates order
- in psychiatry and psychology, classification orders and describes symptoms, for ex. to classify
a person’s disorder as schizophrenia, suggests that the person talks incoherently ; hallucinates,
and shows little or no emotion
- in psychology, classification not only aims to describe a disorder but also predict future
outcomes, treatment
- current scheme for classifying disorders is the DSM-IV-TR (American psychiatric association’s
diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders)
- some changes have been made since the original such as “mental retardation” to “intellectual
developmental disorder”
- most MD’s use this as a practical tool, and insurance companies require a diagnosis from the
DSM before they pay for therapy
- aim is to support integration of psychiatric diagnosis into main stream medical practices
- the DSM defines a diagnostic process and clinical syndromes, these diagnostic guidelines must
be reliable, to prevent different diagnosis from 2 different practitioners.
- there are some discrepancies, increased number of disorder categories
- 26% of adults meet the criteria for at least 1 disorder, and 46% at some point in there

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

- others worry the DSM will extend the pathologizing into everyday life, turning bereavement
into depression
Labeling Psychological disorders
- labels create preconceptions that guide our perceptions and our interpretations
- many psychological disorders are diseases of the brian, not failures of character, the stigma
seems to be lifting
- people express greatest sympathy for people whose disorders are gender atypical- men
suffering from depression - women with alcohol abuse
- stereotypes bombard media an portray as objects of humor and ridicule
- in real life, people with disorders tend to be the victims of violence, not only can labels bias
perception, they can also change reality.
- ex. when teachers are told certain students are gifted or hostile, they may act in ways
that elicit the behaviors expected
- in contrast the benefit of diagnostic labels, in the mental health profession can use labels to
help communicate about there cases, to comprehend underlying cause and to pick effective
treatment programs
- diagnostic definitions also inform patients, self understanding. Useful in research that explores
that causes and treatments of disorder
Rated of Psychological Disorders
- WHO study of prior year mental disorders, lowest rate was in Shanghai and highest rate in U.S,
and immigrants to the U.S from mexico, africa and asia on average have better mental health
than native U.S residences
As for who is most vulnerable to mental disorders, this answer varies from each disorder
- one predictor of mental disorders, poverty, crosses ethnic and gender lines. The incidence of
serious psychological disorders have been doubly high among those below the poverty line
- the correlation btwn poverty-disorder association raises a chicken and the egg question. Dose
poverty cause disorders? Or do disorders cause poverty ?
- it is both, schizophrenia defiantly leads to poverty
- Experiment on the poverty-pathology link, researchers tracked rates of behavioral problems in
native american children, as the study began, kids of poverty exhibited more deviant and
aggressive behavior. After 4 yrs, kids who's families had moves above the poverty line showed
40% decrease in the behavioral problems, while those who continued below the poverty line
exhibited no change.
At what times of life do disorders strike?
- usually around early adult hood
- the symptoms of antisocial personality disorders and phobias are the earliest to appear at a
median of age 8 and 10 respectively.
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version