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Lecture 2

Lecture 2 + required readings lecture notes + assigned readings for the lecture integrated into the lecture notes to reinforce the lecture notes


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH101
Professor
Richard Ennis
Lecture
2

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Lecture 2: Developmental Psychology
Background: The Industrial Revolution
During the industrial revolution, children were seen as mini adults (the
sapling theory).
Sigmund Freud developed a different way of thinking about
development (stage theory), where children go through different age
ranges, and at every age they are a different creature (the caterpillar
theory; children look quite different from us, and have the ability to
develop into adults).
Jean Piaget examined children and found they were very different from
adults. Prior to his research, children were employed at ages as young
as six without a second thought. Most children didn’t receive
education outside of home and the workplace; only the most privileged
received external education.
Alfred Baney suggested the concept of universal education, rather than
only certain children being educated. Following this, other laws such
as the child labour laws were put in place.
Affective Development: Attachment Theory
Harry Harlow: A behaviourist during the 1950s; used chimpanzees to further
his research rather than the common observation animal in a lab (rats).
- When breeding chimps for more research, they would separate
the baby from the mother at birth because they had found that captive
mothers didn’t make good mothers. When they were kept in their own
cages, they would have cloth diapers left on the bottom of the cage for them
to do their business on. Every time the lab asst.’s had to clean the cages, the
babies would cling to the diapers for dear life and would cry for it until it was
replaced. Harlow noted that the babies were falling in love with the diapers
in place of their mothers (something to cuddle, warmer than the rest of the
cage).
Theories about mothers:
1. Freud; believed that babies were highly sexual beings in the area of
the mouth. Because breast feeding is common, it was determined that
the child felt strongly for their mothers for fulfilling this sexual need.
2. Behavioralist view; basic needs were met, and the baby would
associate with the person who brought them the things they needed
(usually the mother).
Both theories have attachment as a secondary.
A theory was developed concerning evolutionary emotion, questioning if we
came into this world willing and ready to fall in love with something in our
environment. This loving bond would highly increase the survival of the child,
as they would have the bigger entity to defend, feed, and care for
themselves.
Harlow developed a concept about attachment being a primary rather than a
secondary process to prove his theory about the chimp and the diaper.

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(Monkey rearing experiment using two surrogate mothers, one made of wire
and the other of cloth.) The cloth mother was initially preferred. Harlow
attaches a bottle to the wire mother; according to old theories, the infant
should fall in love with the wire mother because of this.
Independen
t variables
Dependant
Variables
Infants fed
by cloth
mother
Infants fed
by wire
mother
Contact
time with
wire vs.
cloth
mother
Cloth
~18hr/day
Wire
~2hr/day
Cloth
~18hr/day
Wire
~2hr/day
Reaction to
frightening
object
Ran and
clang to the
cloth mother
Ran and
clang to cloth
mother
Reaction to
being in a
strange
environmen
t with both
mothers
Ran and
clang to cloth
mother, then
gradually
explored
using the
clothe
mother as a
security
base.
Ran and
clang to cloth
mother, then
gradually
explored
using the
clothe
mother as a
security base.
Reaction to
being
placed in a
strange
environmen
t with
neither
mother
Immobilized,
crouching,
crying,
thumb-
sucking.
Immobilized,
crouching,
crying,
thumb-
sucking.
Reaction to
being
placed in a
strange
environmen
t with wire
mother only
Immobilized,
crouching,
crying,
thumb-
sucking.
Immobilized,
crouching,
crying,
thumb-
sucking.
This demonstrates that Freud and the Behaviourists’ theories weren’t
accurate, and that we have an evolutionary possibility to be born with the
ability to love instantaneously, thereby creating a protective place for the
child until such time as it is able to care for itself.
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