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Lecture 2

Lecture 2 required reading Module 9


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH101
Professor
Richard Ennis
Lecture
2

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Infancy and Childhood
Objective 9.1 describe some developmental changes in a child's brain and explain why maturation
accounts for many of our similarities
Ages 3-6 brain development in the frontal lobes is most pronounces
Development of the associated areas of the vortex enable thinking, memory, and language
Brain pathways will develop and strengthen with use until puberty
Maturation guides infants along the same general course of development
Objective 9.2 outline four events in the motor development sequence from birth to toddlerhood , and
to evaluate the effects of maturation and experience on that sequence
Babies follow the same sequence
Rolling over
Sitting unsupported
Crawling
Walking
Experience has little influence
Maturation enables these events
Objective 9.3 explain why we have few memories of experiences during our first three years of life
Infantile amnesia - an inability to recall memories before the age of 3, results from a change in the
way the brain organizes memories
As infants get older, their memory bank grows to enable the infant to store more memories
Objective 9.4 state Piaget's understanding of how the mind develops and discuss the importance of
assimilation and accommodation in this process
Children's reasoning develops in stages and that children actively construct and modify their
understanding of the world as they interact with it
They develop schemas ( a concept for organizing experience), which they use to assimilate
information.
If they are unable to interpret this information, they accommodate the schema by adjusting it.
Objective 9.5 outline Piaget's four main stages of cognitive development and comment on how
children's thinking changes during these four stages
Birth - age 2 : sensorimotor stage where children experience the world their senses and actions
o In the first six months, infants lack object prominence, or the ability to be aware that things
still exist even when out of sight
Age 2 - 6 : preoperational stage where children learn to use language and can represent things with
words and images but are unable to reason logically
o They lack a theory of mind (ability to understand their own and others' feelings, perceptions,
thoughts and behaviours), are egocentric (difficulty taking another's point of view), and have
no concept of conservation (things can change form but retain mass, volume or number)
Age 7 - 11: concrete operational stage where children can think logically about concrete events,
grasp analogies, and perform arithmetical operations
Age 12 - adulthood : formal operational stage where they gain the ability to reason abstractly
Objective 9.6 discuss psychologist's current views of Piaget's theory of cognitive development
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