PSYCH101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Piece Work

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16 Oct 2011
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LEARNING
Lecture Outline
Associations
Learning as Contiguity: From Aristotle to Pavlov
John Locke (1632 - 1704) and "tabula rasa"
Ivan Pavlov (1849 - 1936)
Classical (Pavlovian) Conditioning
Learning Concepts
John Broadus Watson (1878 - 1958): Behaviorism
Watson & Rayner (1920): "Little Albert" studies
Learning as Contingency: From Watson to Skinner
Edward Thorndike (1874 - 1949): Law of Effect
Burrhus Frederick Skinner (1904 - 1990)
Operant (Instrumental, Skinnerian) Conditioning
Behavioural Contingencies
Reinforcement Schedules
Parental Use of Punishment
Learning as Cognitive: From Plato to Garcia
Gottfreid Leibniz (1646 - 1716)
John Garcia: Taste Aversion Research
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Lecture Notes
Beautiful person -> sexual arousal
o Car -> no arousal
Both -> sex arousal
Car -> sex arousal
This effect is due to the association with the beautiful person
Association can be with anything positive
o Eg. Scenery and car, patriotism and beer
o Best beer ad -> I AM CANADIAN
Denial about beautiful women in car ads
A
2 kinds of association continguity and contingency
Things paired in time and space are paired together
o Lightening and thunder
“tabula rasa” – associations
o Mind is basically a blank slate -> Aristotle
o John Locke -> most famous of associationists
o Expanded upon what happens
Experience is going to write on slate
What is written becomes who we are
NURTURE
Associations in time and space -> pairings
o Eg. Baby bottle and mother
More associations built up -> can even build your own as you grow
Philosophy until 1900s
o PAVLOV
PAVLOV
o Because of fame (Nobel Prize) became an icon in Russia
o Lived through revolution
No leader would mess with him
o Perfect surgical technique
Put window in dog’s stomach to observe digestion system with nozzle to take
samples
Looking to see if types of food changed the digestive system juices
As food showed up, dogs salivated, ruining his experiment (not an empty
stomach)
o Study of psychic secreation reason for his famousness
Adversiters = pavlovian technique
RECALL PAVLOV EXPERIMENT WITH BELL AND DOG
Also, recall addiction
o Brain has associated leaving dinner table with shooting up heroine
A
Definitions of Learning
o Relatively permanent change in behaviour, result of experience
Beating of heart is learned
o Acquisition phase referring to period where association is occurring
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