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Lecture

Lecture Six Memory


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH101
Professor
Richard Ennis

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Lecture 6: Memory
Sensation and Perception across Time
Stage Model: Encoding and Storage
Sensory Memory (Register)
oIonic and Echoic memory
oTransfer to STM
oInternal and External Triggers
Short-term Memory (STM)
oWorking memory
o7 +/- 2
oEvaluation of information
Long-term memory (LTM)
oPermanence
oCapacity
Memory is essentially a way of storing our sensations and perceptions. This allows us to
encounter our world, but not re-experiencing everything every time.
Stages:
oInitial encounter
oFiltering process
oStorage process
oRetrieval process
The first stage is referred to as Sensory memory.
Manipulation/filtration of memory is known as the short term memory.
Long term memory refers to our storage and retrieval process.
Sensory Register: External events provide information for sensory organs.
Background “noise”
Foreground “information”
Habituated or
desensitized stimuli
forgotten within
seconds
Internal Trigger External Trigger
Motivated and aroused to
perceive certain information
Selective attention to
changes in the environment
Arousal
stimuli Stimuli
arousal
Not
r st reg i e e
ord
tr ns rra fe e
Registered and transferred to STM

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**Final exam information: 72**
The sensory register has a time limit, and if we don’t process the information
quick enough, we will forget it.
oIconic (visual) memory
oEchoic (sound) memory
- Sensory memory is only truly effective if you use either the
internal or external triggers.
Short Term Memory
Not usually information that can be retained for long periods of time
oi.e.: remembering a phone number
Helps to filter information that needs to be stored vs. information that doesn’t.
Has a 7 unit (plus or minus 2) storage capacity.
oWe are able to increase the capacity by associating the information we are
trying to retain with long-term memory.
i.e.: XNBCPHSSATCBSX associate with things you know;
- x NBC (TV station) PHD (graduate degree) SAT
(Saturday) CBS (TV station) x
- This process is known as chunking, and can only be
effective with previous knowledge. i.e.: if you never knew
of CBS or NBC, this chunking would be ineffective.
- Because of long term memories, it makes it easier to
understand various topics (i.e.: student vs. psych prof.
reading new information from a psych textbook).
In short term memory, more effort needs to be exerted in order to make this
process effective. This is why it is called “working memory”.
Disequilibration motivates us to remember information (i.e.: unknown phone
numbers).
Long-term Memory
Theoretically permanent
Despite the fact that we cannot always retrieve the information, triggers will bring
the memories back.
The more you have stored in LTM, the more you can store in LTM.
oThe greater schematic structure you have, the more you can bring in by
associations (allowing you to have no need to start from the ground up
every time).
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