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Psych 261 Chapter 14 Psych 261 Physiological Psychology Kalat: Biological Psychology 10th Edition Chapter 14

Course Code
James Danckert

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Psych 261 Chapter 14
Cognitive Functions
-difficult but interesting to research cognition; ex. Splitting the corpus callosum leads to ‘separate minds’
Module 14.1
Lateralization of Function
-in human brain: left hemisphere has different functions from right
The Left and Right hemispheres
-skin receptors and muscles are connected to contralateral cerebral cortex (as are eyes, ears)
-ipsilateral control for taste, smell; trunk and face is controlled by both hemispheres
-info of both sides are shared via the corpus callosum
-lateralization: division of control between hemispheres (ex. Left for language, right for emotion)
Visual and Auditory connection to the hemispheres
-visual field: right half shines to left side of both retinas and sends info to left hemisphere
Half of axons at each eye cross to the opposite side at the optic chiasm
-auditory system: ears send to both sides (for localization)
-when ears receive different info focus becomes contralateral
Cutting the Corpus Callosum
-originally a treatment for epilepsy; cut the focus so the seizure affects only half the body
-lead to less frequent seizures but patients became split-brained
-split-brain people: can plan 2 actions at once, but can’t combine visual info seen at opposite sides
-left hemisphere: use for speech production (80-95% greater than right)
-speech comprehension is more equal but still slightly greater in left
-thus: split brain people can name objects seen at their right visual field (info goes to left hemisphere)
-but can’t tell items in left visual field (where items go to right hemisphere)
Split Hemispheres: Competition and Cooperation
-Split brain people have hemispheres that process info independently
-post surgery, the sides act separate
-later: brain learns to use smaller connections between left and right hemispheres (ex. Commissures)
-but still they can’t fully combine the information
The Right Hemisphere
-right hemisphere: able to perceive emotions and judge tone of voice
-left hemisphere damage leads to reliance on right (better judge of emotion, lying)
-also used for spatial relationship (Finding way around), overall patterns and visual features
Hemispheric Specialization in intact Brains
-left: speech; right: emotional inflection of speech, interpret emotions, spatial relation, overall patterns
Development of Lateralization and Handedness
-ex. Left hemisphere is dominant for speech production in 95% of right-handers and 80% of left
Anatomical differences between the hemispheres
-planum temporal (of temporal cortex) larger in left hemisphere of 65% of people;
-usually if right handed
-people with an increased ratio of Planum Temporal in left hemisphere show better at language tests
-people with equal ratio of P.T. show increased ability at non-verbal tasks
Maturation of the Corpus Callosum
-brain creates maximum axons in corpus callosum
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