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Lecture

Lecture 5

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 338
Professor
Doug Brown

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Motivation Lecture
Motivation
1. Self-determination theory: content theory
2. Goal setting theory: process theory
What is Motivation?
1. The extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal
a. Motivations and goals are tied together, goals give direction
2. The basic characteristics of motivation
a. Effort energy towards doing something
b. Persistence effort sustained over some period of time
c. Direction directing energy toward some organizational goal
Content vs process theories
1. Content
a. Focus on those needs that must be met in order to motivate individuals why (fulfill a
fundamental need) we do what we do
i. Self-determination theory
2. Process
a. Focus on the underlying processes involved in motivating employees; how motivation
occurs flip different types of content/goals
i. Goal setting theory
Self-interest: pleasure and pain
1. Psychological egoism (self-interest) and hedonism (bring pleasure, avoid pain)
a. Fundamental form of motivation
Maslow’s Hierarchy
1. Need-based theory
2. 5 fundamental human needs - hierarchy:
a. Physiological: food, water, oxygen lower order
b. Safety: self-preservation avoid physical/psychological harm lower order
c. Social: belong/be connected with others lower order
d. Esteem: feel recognized, status - growth
e. self-actualization: being everything, full potential as human being - growth
i. Deficiency (lower order) needs: psychologically/physically harmed
ii. Growth needs: reach highest potential
3. Prepotency: only one need is driving behaviour, therefore the lowest need will drive behaviour
at any given time
a. If physiological needs are not met, nothing else will matter
4. Invariant: everyone is hardwired to see needs in this order
5. Research does not support prepotency/invariant research shows people are motivated by
multiple things at once, different people have different order
6. Importance: changing scientific management other people are motivated by other things
Self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan)
1. Differentiates between three types of motivation:
a. Extrinsic motivation: motivation guided by external factors, i.e. money, family
disappointment, only motivated as long as extrinsic factor is around less than ideal
state of being
b. Intrinsic motivation: motivation guided by internal factors, i.e. passion, personal
enjoyment
c. Amotivation (no motivation)
Deci SOMA Study
1. Similar to Tetris SOMA puzzles take 7 pieces and configure them to fit into different
combinations of shapes
2. Experiment: solve SOMA puzzles, experimenter leaves room, check how much time people
spend playing with puzzles in their spare time (when they can do anything they want)
a. Transfers an intrinsic task to extrinsic task in experimental group
b. Day 1 no difference between experimental and control group, Day 2 experimental group
is more motivated, day 3 experimental group motivation is lower than control group
3. Self-determination theory is key criticism never going to stop paying employees
The self-determination continuum
1. Extrinsic and intrinsic fall along continuum can be more or less on either aspect
a. Amotivation: no motivation
b. Extrinsic: external rewards and punishments
c. Introjected: internal rewards and punishments regret, guilt, shame through some
type of emotion, do something because you’ll feel good/bad about yourself
d. Identified: important and valued personally working out because you value being
healthy
e. Integrated/intrinsic: inherent interest and enjoyment love to do activity
2. How to transfer staff motivations from ext to int as a manager
a. Extent to which activity fulfill fundamental human needs experiences are intrinsically
motivational
The three needs claim of self-determination theory
1. Autonomy
a. Experiencing choice and feeling like the initiator of one’s own actions
i. Undermine autonomy: ext rewards/punishment, imposing goals and deadlines
b. Ryan (1982) hidden figures (where’s Waldo?) task and feedback
i. Informational feedback (baseline, straightforward instructions) vs evaluative
(statements: “you should try and do this, you have to do that” feedback
1. Evaluative: diminish enjoyment
2. Result: people in informational spent more time than controlling
feedback on task
2. competence
a. being able to attain desired outcomes and succeeding at optimally challenging tasks
i. undermines sense of confidence, capability
3. relatedness
a. establishing a sense of mutual respect and reliance with others

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Description
Motivation Lecture Motivation 1. Self-determination theory: content theory 2. Goal setting theory: process theory What is Motivation? 1. The extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal a. Motivations and goals are tied together, goals give direction 2. The basic characteristics of motivation a. Effort – energy towards doing something b. Persistence – effort sustained over some period of time c. Direction – directing energy toward some organizational goal Content vs process theories 1. Content a. Focus on those needs that must be met in order to motivate individuals – why (fulfill a fundamental need) we do what we do i. Self-determination theory 2. Process a. Focus on the underlying processes involved in motivating employees; how motivation occurs – flip different types of content/goals i. Goal setting theory Self-interest: pleasure and pain 1. Psychological egoism (self-interest) and hedonism (bring pleasure, avoid pain) a. Fundamental form of motivation Maslow’s Hierarchy 1. Need-based theory 2. 5 fundamental human needs - hierarchy: a. Physiological: food, water, oxygen – lower order b. Safety: self-preservation – avoid physical/psychological harm – lower order c. Social: belong/be connected with others – lower order d. Esteem: feel recognized, status - growth e. self-actualization: being everything, full potential as human being - growth i. Deficiency (lower order) needs: psychologically/physically harmed ii. Growth needs: reach highest potential 3. Prepotency: only one need is driving behaviour, therefore the lowest need will drive behaviour at any given time a. If physiological needs are not met, nothing else will matter 4. Invariant: everyone is hardwired to see needs in this order 5. Research does not support prepotency/invariant – research shows people are motivated by multiple things at once, different people have different order 6. Importance: changing scientific management – other people are motivated by other things Self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan) 1. Differentiates between three types of motivation: a. Extrinsic motivation: motivation guided by external factors, i.e. money, family disappointment, only motivated as long as extrinsic factor is around – less than ideal state of being b. Intrinsic motivation: motivation guided by internal factors, i.e. passion, personal enjoyment c. Amotivation (no motivation) Deci SOMA Study 1. Similar to Tetris – SOMA puzzles – take 7 pieces and configure them to fit into different combinations of shapes 2. Experiment: solve SOMA puzzles, experimenter leaves room, check how much time people spend playing with puzzles in their spare time (when they can do anything they want) a. Transfers an intrinsic task to extrinsic task in experimental group b. Day 1 no difference between experimental and control group, Day 2 experimental group is more motivated, day 3 experimental group motivation is lower than control group 3. Self-determination theory is key criticism – never going to stop paying employees The self-determination continuum 1. Extrinsic and intrinsic fall along continuum – can be more or less on either aspect a. Amotivation: no motivation b. Extrinsic: external rewards and punishments c. Introjected: internal rewards and punishments – regret, guilt, shame – through some type of emotion, do something because you’ll feel good/bad about yourself d. Identified: important and valued personally – working out because you value being healthy e. Integrated/intrinsic: inherent interest and enjoyment – love to do activity 2. How to transfer staff motivations from ext to int as a manager a. Extent to which activity fulfill fundamental human needs – experiences are intrinsically motivational The three needs – claim of self-determination theory 1. Autonomy a. Experiencing choice and feeling like the initiator of one’s own actions i. Undermine autonomy: ext rewards/punishment, imposing goals and deadlines b. Ryan (1982) – hidden figures (where’s Waldo?) task and feedback i. Informational feedback (baseline, straightforward instructions) vs evaluative (statements: “you should try and do this, you have to do that” feedback 1. Evaluative: diminish enjoyment 2. Result: people in informational spent more time than controlling feedback on task 2. competence a. being able to attain desired outcomes and succeeding at optimally challenging tasks i. undermines sense of confidence, capability 3. relatedness a. establishing a sense of mutual respect and reliance with others i. when needs are thwarted, people will miserable and depressed Retirement and autonomy 1. who retires and who doesn’t, and how autonomy plays in 2. people who are free to do what they want never want to retire, vice versa What happens when needs are not met: 1. lower job satisfaction 2. poorer mental health 3. lowered SE 4. deviant behaviours Lian, Ferris, & Brown (2012) 1. study: Extent to which being abused would undermine fundamental needs as expressed in self- determination theory a. needs: Competence, autonomy, belonging b. deviance: spreading rumours, getting revenge on boss i. people who had abusive supervisors had fundamental needs lowered and increased amount of deviance in employees 2. Abusive supervision: a. Displays of hostile verbal and nonverbal behaviours b. Behaviours are sustained and not linked to a discrete event Consequences of Abusive supervision 1. May take it home Applying the theory: job design 1. jobs where you design the job so it maximally meets peoples’ needs – design conditions to increase the extent to which peoples’ needs are met Job characteristics model 1. make the job more fulfilling for people 2. Manipulate core job dimensions  reverse engineer situation, what conditions will fulfill those psychological states a. skill variety: use of diff skills on job  meaning b. task identity: craftsmen who designs and builds chair from start to finish  meaning c. task significance: extent to which your job has benefit on others  meaning d. autonomy: freedom  responsibility e. feedback: good/bad  knowledge of actual results of work i. contribute to psychological state ii. try to enrich different jobs types, i.e. meat factory iii. meet personal and work outcomes iv. people want to do meaningful work, you just need to create the situation for them – not everyone cares about this aspect v. premise same as self-determination theory – both have n
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