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Lecture 2

Rec 100: Lecture 2 - Leisure Experiences and Satisfactioin Complete Notes

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University of Waterloo
Recreation and Leisure Studies
REC 100
Diana Parry

Fall 2011 Brandon Yee Leisure Experiences and Satisfaction: REC 100 Recreation and Leisure Studies 100 September 20, 2011 Leisure boredom?? some people actually feel bored in their leisure o Leisure boredom: “a mismatch between desired arousal producing characteristics of leisure experiences, and perceptual or actual availability of such leisure experiences” (Iso-Ahola & Weissinger, 1990)  mismatch between what people want to do, and what people are able to do o Barnett & Wolf Klitzing (2006) connected leisure boredom to a lack of meaningful and involving leisure pursuits  not like watching TV, but something meaningful  people with disabilities, elderly, homeless people, unemployed people o have “too much time” on their hands but don’t have the means to access leisure the way other people do (lack of meaningful pursuits for them to engage in) o Adolescent leisure boredom research reveals that leisure environment/context is a significant contributing factor to leisure boredom which can lead to negative social behaviours (Wegner & Flisher, 2009)  experiencing boredom can lead to many antisocial/delinquent behaviours (drug use, drinking, vandalism, high-risk sexual behaviour) There are some common findings in terms of predictors/contributing factors to leisure boredom:  social control factors (ex. lack of control of their own leisure time = more leisure boredom)  age (older adolescents experience less LB)  lack of challenge in leisure (more on this later) experience more LB  individual intrinsic motivation (higher intrinsic motivation tended to experiences less LB)  gender? Research is divided on this issue...  What this [leader boredom] demonstrates is that not everything satisfies us in our leisure  Important element b/c our satisfaction in the pursuit determines whether or not we will/want to continue with that specific leisure activity 1 Fall 2011 Brandon Yee o How do people construe, experience, and appraise what they do in their leisure? Three approaches o Definitional Approach o Immediate Conscious Experience Approach o Post Hoc Satisfaction Approach Definitional Approach o Identifies the attributes that lead people to construe an activity, setting, or experience as leisure  Not asking people what they participate in (not the activity itself), but rather what they enjoy o Interviews - “describe most memorable /enjoyable leisure experiences”  Asking them about their experience through interviews o Results - enjoyment, intense involvement, escape o Examples of studies  Done by doctor Susan shah  Gave people time diaries (journals for people to keep track of what they do throughout the day) o Ex. wake up, breakfast, shower, walk dog, etc.  Beside each, told them to classify whether they consider each to be work, leisure, neither, or both  She gathered this info in order to compare women to men  Men were more likely to label shopping, childcare, and cooking as leisure  Women were more likely to label these pursuits as work or a combination of work and leisure  Men did this because they have a higher degree of perceived freedom with these pursuits (they don’t usually do it and feel they can stop when they want) Immediate Conscious Experience Approach o Examines the quality or texture of what people experience during leisure  Get at the context of the experience (what makes it a leisure experience in your mind) 2 Fall 2011 Brandon Yee o Go on-site to study leisure experiences - their quality, duration, intensity  Talk to people right in the moment  PROBLEM: interrupting someone who is taking part in their leisure (they don’t like that)  This approach led to the development of a popular leisure theory called “flow” o Flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990) Flow o Interviewed people engaged in most enjoyable leisure ( ) and work ( )  Activity in which you are completely focused on at the time that everything else (time) melts away  Talked specifically to dancers, rock climbers, chess players, basketball players, surgeons, etc. o Criteria: Skill level meets the challenge  Criteria for flow is that the skill level of the participant matches the skill level of the actual activity o Examples?  It can occur in any context, in any situation  It’s not limited to any physical activity (their skill level must match the challenge and they are totally involved) Attributes of a Flow Experience 1. merging of action and awareness 2. centering of attention 3. loss of self-consciousness (transcended their sense of ego: people are not thinking of being judged by others, but simply by what they are doing at the moment) 4. autotelic (being involved in a... 5. clear demands for action 6. sensation of total control 3 Fall 2011 Brandon Yee How Does it Feel to Experience Flow? o Completely involved, focused o Sense of ecstasy, outside of everyday o Great inner clarity o Knowing the activity is achievable o Sense of serenity o Timelessness o Intrinsic motivation  whatever activity you are involved din that produces flow, that is the reward Example of Flow Research o Zaman, Ananda rajan, Dai (2010): o Flow, instant messaging, and creativity o Hypothesis: o Flow experience would facilitate increased creativity o Findings: o Instant messaging users experienced flow (↑ with perceived control, recall Csikzentmihalyi’s skill category) o Flow had an indirect impact on perceived creativity through positive affect, intense concentration, and exploratory behaviour characteristic of flow experiences o amount of flow increased with perceived control; people who felt their skill level met the
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