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Lecture 3

Rec 100: Lecture 3 - The Importance of Time Complete Notes

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Recreation and Leisure Studies
REC 100
Diana Parry

Fall 2011 Brandon Yee The Importance of Time Recreation and Leisure Studies 100 September 22, 2011 The Debate about Time Is free time increasing or decreasing? Confusing and mixed results  Results are mixed (some have a lot of free time/leisure compared to others) Time is a difficult concept to measure – different measurement techniques  Measure time by recall o Asking people to recall (how much time did you spend watching TV, sleeping, working)  Time diaries o Researches give participants a little diary to record their time/activity throughout the day  Direct observation o Researches follow people around and researchers observe how much time they spend in certain activities (instead of the people recording themselves)  Experiential sampling method o Give participants beepers/watches for them to wear and occasionally throughout the day, researcher will beep them and ask them to record what they are doing at that moment  The LEAST ACCURATE way to measure is recall b/c people tend to overestimate the amount of time they spend working and underestimate the amount of time they spend sleeping Time one of our most precious commodities What bothers Canadians the most? (MacLean’s 2006 Poll) Our health – 37% Lack of money – 39% Lack of time – 47% (74% Canadians less time than 5 years ago) Technical advances provided more goods, but not more time  Time is people’s biggest concern (new technologies make life easier, but do not give us more time) 1 Fall 2011 Brandon Yee Pace of life keeps speeding up - people often feel rushed Cats over dogs; ready-to-drink over frozen; Starbucks’ Via over grinding and brewing Concept of “Scarcity of Time” developed What is the source of the problem?  WORK Average Canadian works hours/week 69% say they are in early or leave late to keep up with their workload 79% of young and successful agree family and friends resent hours they work  The Mobile Workforce  Technology brings the office with you  North Americans working during “off hours”: o Before commuting: 44.3% o During lunch: 45.2% o After commuting home: 32.6% o After children go to sleep: 18.8% o In the middle of the night: 8.3% o While waiting for appointments, etc.: 22.7% o On vacations: 90%  (above) is mainly for adult workers The Overworked American (Schor)  Her research is based on recall methods (controversial)  It’s the pace of work that people have trouble keeping up with, as opposed to the hours of work  US has become the longest working nation in the advanced industrial world Working 163 more hours per year compared to a few decades ago Why? Increased consumption  People want to live in bigger houses, upgrade kitchen, drive a better car, etc.  We have the need to consume more 2 Fall 2011 Brandon Yee Her work is based on recall method Critics state that people think they are working longer hours because of the pace of the work The Overworked Canadian? (Duxbury) 1991 12% working 50+ hours 2007 26% working 50+ hours “Canada is a world leader in work intensification”  In the past, Julia Schor said US was the leader, Duxbury says Canada is becoming that  “Canadian workers neglect to take the equivalent of 41 million vacation days a year that they’re owed” Comparisons in Available Free Time Gender - men have more leisure time  Men are in paid employment more than women Age - U-shaped (18-24 and 55-64 have more free time) Education - irregular and minimal Income - higher income = less free time Time Deepening Speed up a given activity  Ex. only reading certain parts of the newspaper, etc. Substitute an activity that can be done more quickly for one that takes longer  Ex. buying fast food instead of making your own food Doing more than one activity at once  Multitasking  Ex. watching TV and cooking at the same time, talking and working at the same time, etc. 3 Fall 2011 Brandon Yee Advantages and Disadvantages of Time Deepening Advantage = time efficiency Disadvantage = stress We assume the need to rush, consume, and stay perpetually busy - in all aspects of our life (work and leisure)  People report not only feeling rushed in their work lives, but also in their leisure time  We consume more and have more options, which causes stress and feeling rushed 60% of high income Canadians (anyone making more than $80,000) and 47% of low income Canadians (anyone making less than $30,000) report feeling rushed every day of the week, including Saturday and Sunday View Time as a Commodity “Doing it all” and “seeing it all” Life is a checklist (“been there, done that”) Efficiency is our mode and efficiency is not a friend of leisure  Leisure used to be seen as just a passage of time; now, more report to “invest” in their leisure time Tempo vs. Duration Difference in time use between weekdays and weekends is decreasing Blurring of weekends and weekdays due to flexible work schedules  People don’t work strictly from 9-5 and come home and have free time; now people take work home, h
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