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Lecture 4

REC280 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Intensify, Sexually Transmitted Infection, Sex Tourism


Department
Recreation and Leisure Studies
Course Code
REC280
Professor
Pooneh Torabian
Lecture
4

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Module/Week 4: Socio-Cultural Impacts of Tourism
Introduction
- Tourism relies on simultaneous production & consumption
- Implications
o 3 ways for contact btwn host & guest can occur:
1. Tourists purchase goods & services
2. Tourists & locals use same services and facilities
3. Tourism & locals meet purposely to exchange ideas and information
o Beneficial or detrimental impacts of these scenarios
Definition
- Changes brought about by tourism development in the destination’s quality of life,
labour division, value system, individual behaviour, family relationships, social
organizations, community lifestyles, moral principles, creative expression and traditional
ceremonies
- Impacts of tourism on those components of hosts’ life that constitute the unique culture
of the given destination
- Social impacts tend to include the changes occurring in the everyday life of the
community and the adaption to the presence and operation of the tourism sector
- Cultural impacts are changes in the set of values and norms of the local community
which simultaneously have an impact on the social relationship, art and material culture
Issues
- Focus of socio-culture impacts tends to be on the host-community
- Less attention has been paid to the tourist population
- The effects of tourism in Mallorca good and bad video
o Crowded, some tourists are being anti-social, some are even committing crimes,
litter everywhere,
o Why do the people of Mallorca put up with all these problems?
1. It earns lots of money for the area
2. Lots of people have jobs providing services to tourists but are not being
paid well
Negative Socio-Cultural Impacts
- Crime tourists can be victims of crimes
- Language barriers
- Religion tourists may not possess the beliefs of that particular region
- Health spread of disease through tourism
- Overcommercialization loss of authenticity of traditional arts and crafts, customs and
ceremonies
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- Sex many tourists travel to have sex
o The US centers for Disease Control and Prevention
1. Sex tourism = “…travel planned specifically for the purpose of sex,
generally to a country where prostitution is legal. However, HIV and
other sexually transmitted diseases are more common among
prostitutes. Sex tourism also supports human trafficking, one of the
largest criminal industries in the world
Positive Socio-Cultural Impacts
- Conservation of cultural heritage tourists can be a major stimulus for conservation of
important elements
- Renewal of cultural pride
- Cross-cultural exchange
The Irridex Model by G.V. Doxey
- Index of Tourist Irritation identifies 5 stages smaller destinations are likely to
experience
Stage 1: Level of
Euphoria
- Positive vibrations occur as tourist $$ flow, additional jobs and
financial resources have positive impact on community
- Enthusiasm about development of tourism
- Visitors greeted happily
- Tourists & residents enjoy mutual satisfaction
Stage 2: level of
apathy
- Residents being to take advantage of tourism
- Negative economic impacts become evident on locals or
two-tier system of pricing develops
- Tourist and their financial resources taken for granted
- Warmth first experienced btwn tourist and local becomes
more formal
Stage 3: level of
irritation
- Industry is nearing saturation point
- Residents start feeling annoyed by presence of tourists
- As long as # of tourists kept at reasonable level, irritation can
be effectively dealt with
Stage 4: level of
antagonism
- Irritation becomes vocal
- Tourists considered responsible for all negative occurrence in
destination such as increased crime rates and bad behaviour
- Residents become hostile towards tourists
- Irreversible changes in local culture and moral attitudes
Stage 5: the final
level
- Local residents forget the way they lived before
- Unable to control changes brought about by tourism
development
- If they are able to make adjustments, the destination continue
to thrive
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